Swelling of the lower extremities in the ankles or ankles does not occur for no reason. Having ascertained it, such unpleasant moments in most cases in the future will be possible to avoid or quickly return the legs to normal. But sometimes, such edema signals a serious malfunction in the body, systemic diseases or temporary conditions such as pregnancy.
From this article, you will learn about all the reasons that can lead to ankle swelling, and you can determine "your". After which you will understand whether it is worth going to the doctor with this problem or you can cope on your own.
Why do edema occur - causes
The essence of edema is that excess fluid accumulates in the body in the ankle and is not removed from it. It may contain substances that the body does not need. But the reasons why this happens and what prevents the liquid from dissolving are different. They vary depending on whether edema has formed on one leg or both at once.
Swelling of the legs in the ankle and foot on one side causes the following causes:
- Injury. It is accompanied by a rupture of ligaments, fractures, sprains, bruises, hematomas. Physiologically, edema is manifested due to damage to blood vessels - blood accumulates in the tissues in the area of the injury, due to which the skin becomes cyanotic. If a closed fracture is observed, then the pain becomes more intense when you try to turn your leg inward. Treatment should be carried out by a doctor. First aid consists in fixing a damaged limb.
- Wearing plaster. Gypsum limits the movement of the leg, and therefore stagnation occurs in the place where the gypsum is applied after the fracture. Puffiness after removal of the plaster cast should gradually decrease by itself.
- With thrombosis edema is associated with obstructed passage of blood through the veins. Depending on the severity of the disease, edema can develop from several hours to 3 days. The faster the leg swells, the more painful the process. The pain occurs due to the fact that the subcutaneous tissue does not have time to stretch. Edema is caused by the formation of collaterals, in other words bypass pathways of clogged veins, and the accumulation of blood in the lower legs. In the leg, 2-3 liters of blood accumulate, because of which it swells by 10 cm in a circle or more.
- Infection, that got inside due to skin damage, contributes to the development of the inflammatory process. It leads to the development of increased swelling. Subsequently, an abscess, phlegmon, gangrene may form. Edema is necessarily accompanied by painful sensations and fever both locally and throughout the body. The infectious nature of edema is at risk of blood poisoning.
- Arthritis or arthrosis can also cause edema. In this case, the joints become inflamed due to increased friction or damage.
- Insect bites provoke an allergic reaction of the body to poison, which is expressed by swelling. It is important to determine who made the bite in order to provide first aid. In the most general case, it is recommended to apply a cooling compress to the bite site and wipe the area with alcohol. Do not mechanically act on the bite site, this can cause complications. If the bite site itches, then you can wipe it with a solution of soda. For treatment, it is recommended to use ointment Kremgen. It has anti-edematous properties, thanks to the development of special proteins, it soothes itching and relieves the inflammatory process. Swelling after a bite can last up to 2-3 weeks, because of the length of the period blood circulation problems may occur.
- One of the causes of ankle edema is phlebeurysm. As with thrombosis, stagnation of blood occurs in the vessels, however, the mechanism for the development of the process is different. Blood accumulates in the vessels, expanding them, due to which the total ankle volume increases. It is necessary to treat the disease in the early stages. until trophic ulcers, blood clots.
Varicose veins cause swelling of the legs in the ankle and foot
Swelling of both legs is caused by the following reasons:
- Long stay in the same position. Because of this, the outflow of blood and lymph is complicated, and these fluids accumulate in the lower legs. The symptom often manifests itself in people who, due to the characteristics of the profession, are forced to spend a long time sitting or in an uncomfortable position. For example, a posture with cross-legged legs, as well as sitting on soft chairs, is undesirable for swelling. It can also be about travelers. The elderly are especially at risk, their legs in the ankles swell more often, so it is recommended to use a bandage to fix the ankle joint during flights or transfers, as well as take short walks every 30-40 minutes of sedentary work.
- If shoes are too tight, it also prevents the outflow of blood and lymph, it lingers in the foot and ankle. High-heeled shoes are also undesirable, since in this case the blood supply to the forefoot worsens.
- Contributes to impaired blood circulation and lymphatic circulation obesity, since excess weight, in particular the stomach, exerts pressure on the iliac veins, through which blood flows from the limbs. It is recommended in this case to devote more time to physical activity and adjust nutrition.
- Intensive sports also lead to swelling of the legs. It can be strength exercises or yoga, a long run.
- During pregnancy compression of the inferior vena cava occurs (it is responsible for the blood supply to the lower extremities). As a result, the circulation of the lower body is disturbed, and swelling occurs. This phenomenon is not a deviation from the norm and occurs in most pregnant women in the last months of bearing a child. If puffiness is severe and causes serious discomfort, it is necessary to adhere to the general rules of first aid for swelling of the legs and follow the recommendations of the doctor who is observing pregnancy. For example, a cold compress is recommended from simple means. Doctors also recommend that you do not put your foot on the foot, so as not to create conditions for obstructed circulation. In some cases, edema is a symptom of gestosis or late toxicosis. Then immediate medical attention is required.
- At kidney disease water-salt metabolism is disrupted, because of this, the fluid entering the body does not have time to leave it and accumulates in the lower part of the body, leading to swelling of the ankles.
- Cardiovascular diseases - One of the most serious causes of leg edema. It is characteristic that with cardiac pathologies, edema forms later in the evening.
- Lymphostasis - A disease associated with a violation of the outflow of lymph. It leads to damage to blood vessels, dense edema. If untreated, the disease progresses and elephantiasis develops.
- Hygroma - is a neoplasm consisting of articular tissue and fibrous fluid. The development process occurs gradually, over time, the formation increases in size, the skin on this site coarsens and peels. The tumor itself is painless, but mild pain can be felt with pressure.
- Swelling of the foot in the ankle and foot may result from taking hormones, since they change the course of all processes in the body.
If the limbs suddenly began to swell, it is necessary:
- Take a position so that the legs are raised above the heart.For example, you can put your feet on a pillow or armrest of a sofa. Moreover, this pose is recommended to be taken not only when the swelling has already appeared, but systematically - in the morning and evening. Sleeping is also recommended with your feet on a hill.
- Exclude the salt completely or use it minimally, as it retains water in the body.
- Stimulate blood supply to peripheral areas of the body and water-salt metabolism with the help of a contrast shower, which should be taken daily and it is better to do this 2 times a day.
- Refuse to drink too much water. And you should drink really good quality water, and not soda, juices or mineral water. The recommended water intake for people with edema is 1.5 liters.
- Stimulate the process of fluid drainage through lymphatic drainage massage.
- Adjust your diet to reduce weight and include more potassium-containing foods in your diet.
- Engage in physical therapy.
- Take salt foot baths.
- Do not sit with your legs under you.
- Use arch support for shoes, if there is flat feet.
Swelling of both ankles
Bilateral swelling is familiar to most people, regardless of age, gender or profession. And cause her most commonplace reasons.
- Wearing uncomfortable shoes. This primarily concerns women who often wear high-heeled shoes. The position of the foot in it cannot be called natural. And even if it is very beautiful, and the woman does not feel much discomfort, by the end of the day the legs that are in constant tension are very tired, the lymph movement is disturbed in them, blood supply is deteriorating. The result is swelling. The same situation arises from tight shoes or an uncomfortable shoe. Especially if a person actively moves in it: goes in for sports, walks a lot.
It is important! Swelling of the ankles and other parts of the body during pregnancy is a reason to see a doctor. Since they can indicate serious negative changes in the kidneys and the cardiovascular system, which are very dangerous for the life of the child and mother.
But edema of both ankles is not always associated with external causes. It can be a symptom of diseases that pose a serious threat to health and life. It is again about the heart, blood vessels and kidneys.
Diseases of these vital organs can lead to disturbances in the water balance in the body of any person. For example, the increasing permeability of the walls of blood vessels leads to the fact that the fluid released through them accumulates in the surrounding tissues. Edema also occurs with an increase in blood pressure.
Another possible cause of bilateral edema is a violation of the outflow of lymphatic fluid from tissues as a result of pathologies in the functioning of the lymphatic system. Or as a result of prolonged uncontrolled intake of antidepressants, hormonal drugs, drugs for pressure and other drugs.
Dislocation and other injuries
Swelling of the legs near the bone can be associated with injuries of varying complexity. With a dislocation, swollen ankle joints are associated with a violation of the joint structure, while the capsule does not collapse. Redness and swelling near the ankles also appears after a fracture. In this case, in addition to puffiness, other signs are noted:
- soreness at rest and during physical exertion,
- deformation of the lower limb from the knee to the foot,
- the redness of the soft tissues in the lower leg,
- crunching with movements.
If the patient will be given first aid immediately after the injury, then swelling can be prevented or significantly reduced.
Swelling of one ankle
The causes described below most often cause unilateral edema. But not necessarily, it can appear on both legs, if there are prerequisites for this.
So, the accumulation of fluid in the tissues of the ankles of one leg can be caused by:
- trauma to bones, joints, muscles, ligaments. Any fracture, dislocation or even severe bruising often leads to the accumulation of blood, lymph and other fluid in the affected area, which leads to swelling. These conditions are usually accompanied by severe pain,
Edema of the legs sometimes accompany cancer patients with malabsorption syndrome, in which protein and some vitamins from food are not absorbed. But this happens quite rarely.
What to do if legs often cramp? First, it is worth noting under what circumstances convulsions occur: during swimming, playing sports or in other situations. Also note the intensity of the convulsive state and pain in doing so. The treatment method will also depend on the intensity and correctly established cause of the seizures. Read more on our website.
How to remove swelling
Treating symptoms is an ungrateful and useless affair. It is necessary to influence the cause of their appearance. In the case of ankle edema, there can be many such reasons, therefore, the actions aimed at eliminating them vary.
- Injuries to bones, ligaments and joints should be addressed to a traumatologist who will choose the method of their restoration. Edema in these cases will pass after recovery.
It is important! Do not self-medicate. Even taking seemingly harmless diuretics can aggravate the problem. At first, the disappeared edema will return again if you take such drugs illiterate or for too long. The body will respond to excessive fluid loss by its accumulation in tissues, keeping it “in reserve”. Other negative health effects are possible.
If the legs in the ankles swell not because of illness, but because of pregnancy or the features of your lifestyle, you can get rid of them without the help of doctors, on your own.
- First of all, you need to eliminate the factor that causes swelling - uncomfortable shoes. Do not wear unnecessarily high heels and narrow-toed shoes, as well as slippers that require constant foot pressure to hold them.
Pay special attention to the choice of sports and casual shoes, in which you spend a lot of time. For problems with legs, preference should be given to orthopedic models, or at least use orthopedic insoles.
You can be like physiotherapy, physiotherapy exercises or do foot massage. It is quite accessible for independent execution: it is enough to stroke the ankles several times a day, moving from bottom to top.
Since swelling of the legs is caused by completely different reasons, the treatment depends on them. Diagnostics is carried out in several stages. You can independently determine the severity of the cause if you pay attention to when the swelling occurs and under what conditions they pass (if they pass).
For example, if you drink a lot of liquid at night, then a slight swelling in the ankle and foot may well occur in the morning. If the edema passes after resting, it means that it is caused by a significant load on the legs, and it should be reduced. Under other conditions, a doctor’s consultation is necessary.
First of all, you should consult a therapist. He will conduct an initial examination, take into account the patient’s complaints, then examine the edema by palpation, measure the temperature of the body and directly swollen area, blood pressure.
The results that will be obtained will be the basis for further research:
- general blood test (to determine the level of hemoglobin, red blood cells, platelets, ESR), urine (the level of protein and red blood cells is determined),
- blood test for sugar (for the detection of diabetes mellitus),
- hormone testing,
- Ultrasound of blood vessels and internal organs.
Additionally, MRI, coronography, angiography, etc. can be prescribed.
It is on the basis of the data obtained that the doctor prescribes treatment and sends to highly specialized doctors:
Arthritis as a source of swelling
Pain and swelling of the ankle are caused by the inflammatory process in the movable joints. A swollen ankle joint is associated with an infectious or autoimmune disorder. There are several types of arthritis presented in the table, each of which is manifested by different signs:
|Psoriatic||Swelling on the inside of the leg is a consequence of the progression of psoriasis|
|There is a pain symptom in the movable joint|
|Disturbed motor function of the legs below the knees|
|Rheumatoid||Extensive inflammatory reaction in tissues surrounding the ankle joint|
|The ankle is very red, sore and swollen|
|Septic||Inflammation manifests itself in the joint bag or membrane|
The causes of edema near the left or right ankle joint often lie in the progression of this pathology, which is characterized by inflammation of the plantar fascia. At risk are patients leading an active lifestyle. Also, swelling with plantar fasciitis is often observed in women and people who pick up uncomfortable shoes. In violation, the patient also complains of severe pain localized in the heel.
- Swelling of the legs in the ankle and foot caused by pathology of the kidneys and heart is treated with diuretics. They contribute to the removal of excess water from the body.
- With thrombosis and varicose veins, drugs are prescribed that lower cholesterol and blood viscosity, strengthen blood vessels, and promote venous tone. Vetonics have this effect. Phleboprotectors are also used - they tone the venous system, promote vasodilation, and have antispasmodic effects. Often they contain bioflavonoids, horse chestnut extract, vitamins C and P. Doctors also recommend wearing compression underwear, using topical gels and ointments to relieve symptoms.
- Apply also means for local application. These include ointments and gels. They help relieve pain, relieve inflammation.
- To stimulate blood circulation, strengthen the walls of blood vessels, Leoton, Venitan, Essaven are used.
The ankle joints become red and swollen due to impaired metabolism of purine compounds. With the disease, a pathological accumulation of uric acid is noted. The exacerbation of gout and swelling of the ankle lead to such factors:
- drinking alcohol
- visits to steam rooms and saunas,
- a large number of meat and fatty foods in the diet.
A swollen joint in the ankle region is sometimes explained by a similar chronic disease leading to limited mobility and disability. The disease can manifest itself after a serious injury to the lower extremities. In addition to redness and swelling, other manifestations of arthrosis are noted:
- pain in the ankle joint, extending to the entire limb,
- impaired gait
- limited activity.
Depending on the cause of puffiness, physical therapy aimed at reducing weight, strengthening blood vessels, ligaments and joints is recommended. The supporting effect is given by yoga, cycling, jogging, Pilates. Swelling of the legs in the ankle and foot will help remove the following set of exercises.
It is necessary:
- Bend and unbend your toes at a fast pace.
- 2 minutes to walk on toes.
- Lift objects from the floor, grabbing them with your toes.
- Flatten and spread toes.
- Rotate the feet clockwise and counterclockwise.
- Roll from heel to toe.
Such exercises help improve blood circulation.
Why are the legs swollen around the ankles in women
However, legs swollen by the end of the day should not be confused with edema, in which fluid accumulates in the lower part of the leg for a long time, often causing pain and is a symptom of some serious illness.In this case, a visit to a doctor is simply necessary.
Swollen ankles by evening are a temporary effect, even though you cannot bend and unbend your legs as easily as usual, but they themselves look very swollen. Consider the most common causes of this unpleasant, but in this case absolutely non-dangerous phenomenon:
Types of edema
Edema occurs primarily due to the untimely removal of excess fluid from the body. The problem is that this liquid may contain substances that are harmful to the body, which negatively affect the work of internal organs.
Edema in this zone are of two types:
They differ from each other by the causes of the occurrence, the severity.
The main goals of foot massage: activation of blood circulation in the ankle and foot, removal of lymph, relief of pain - all this helps to relieve swelling. Massage is also used for prevention, performing it both in classical technique and in others, for example, acupressure or lymphatic drainage.
Before the massage, you should make a warm foot bath, and then apply a massage cream. Doctors also recommend using fir oil for massage.
The main massage option:
- They begin to work on the foot from the foot, gradually rising up.
- The intensity of exposure increases progressively.
- Especially carefully knead / rub the outer and inner sides of the foot, heel, each finger (knead in circular motions).
- You can simultaneously massage the foot with one hand and the ankle with the other.
After the massage, pleasant warmth spreads over the legs, a feeling of lightness appears, the swelling subsides.
If a basic massage does not help, use a deep impact technique. Its essence lies in the fact that light stroking from the foot to the hip is replaced by intensive kneading - pain is the norm. The skin turns red due to increased blood circulation. You can add patting and pinching movements.
A feature of lymphatic drainage massage is the special wave-like movements of the masseur. The specialist gently presses on the skin, and then works out the lines of lymph flow with a sliding movement. The impact can be on the surface layers of the skin, on the vessels and directly on the lymph nodes.
Massage is prohibited with:
- severe varicose veins,
- elevated temperature
- infectious diseases.
When massaging, one must adhere to the massage lines and observe the technique of movements.
- It is necessary to take half a glass of sea salt, stir it in 2 liters of warm water and lower your legs into the water for 15 minutes. You can replace the bath with a compress. Then you need to soak a terry towel with a solution and wrap it around the swelling area. The course of treatment is 10 days daily.
- One onion needs to be grated, turning into onion gruel. This mass should be mixed with sugar (100 g) and infused for 12 hours. Then the settled juice must be drained, you can strain through cheesecloth. Syrup drink 2 tbsp. on an empty stomach daily.
- Parsley root should be washed well and chopped. The mass is brewed with 0.5 l of boiling water and removed to a dark place for 10 hours. Squeeze the juice from one lemon and add it to the strained infusion.
- Brew 1 tbsp. Astragalus 1 tbsp. freshly boiled water. Then insist it before cooling and filter. Take an infusion of 3 tbsp. 2 weeks.
- Fresh birch leaves are collected in fabric bags, and then immersed in their legs. Such a compress should be kept for 4 hours. The procedure is recommended to be performed daily.
- In equal proportions, you need to mix the crushed herbs - nettle, peppermint, calamus root, color - black elderberry, linden. 2 tbsp the mixture is required to fill in 0.5 l of water, hermetically cover the container in which the herbs are infused, and insist 1 hour. The cooled and strained infusion is drunk half a glass in the morning and evening after eating.
If the leg swells in the ankle or foot, this does not always mean the presence of any disease. There is a chance that the swelling is caused by intense physical exertion or prolonged uncomfortable position of the legs, which caused fluid stagnation.
In such cases, folk remedies and relaxing massage help. But it happens that the cause of leg edema is serious diseases that require medical and physiotherapeutic treatment.
Salt is important for our body, as it helps to maintain water. But everything is good in moderation. And our body knows its measure very well. Therefore, it is an excess of salt or a lack of water for its withdrawal that leads to swelling of the ankles.
What to do? This may sound counterintuitive, but drink more water - this will help the body move fluid in the body faster and reduce swelling in the legs.
Eat bananas and spinach - the potassium contained in them works as a diuretic and removes salt from the body.
A fairly common cause of unilateral edema is leg injury. It can be sprains, fractures, tears of the ligamentous apparatus, etc.
In almost any serious injury, locally damaged blood vessels. Legs in the foot swell strongly in this case due to an outpouring of blood. This may be accompanied by the appearance of a hematoma, a change in the color of the skin, etc.
Thrombosis is a common blood vessel disease. With this ailment, the lumen of the vessels is significantly narrowed, blood circulation slows down due to the formation of blood clots.
Why do the feet and ankles swell in this case? A sufficient amount of oxygen does not reach the affected area. The patient is in severe pain.
Infectious processes often lead to edema of certain parts of the body. Locally, the temperature rises, pain, aching, weakness appear.
Such infectious processes include an abscess, phlegmon, etc. You should immediately consult a doctor, since an infection can lead to blood poisoning.
Prolonged and incorrect leg position
Prolonged sitting is another reason why the legs swell around the ankles. Often this is also facilitated by an uncomfortable posture plus stagnation of blood - at the computer or the wheel, as well as on the bus or train.
It also arises with long-term performance on a low soft sofa, when throwing legs on foot - any uncomfortable position of the legs.
The key point here is that lack of movement causes fluid to build up in the legs, so take breaks and stretch your legs to get the blood moving.
Similarly, when driving a car, it is important to stop and walk regularly.
Just two minutes of such an exercise per hour will help improve the condition of the legs.
How heat is associated with swollen ankles
When we are hot, the blood vessels expand, the outflow of blood to the surface of the skin intensifies to cool the skin - a large surface area of the skin means a large surface area for evaporation of moisture (sweat) and, therefore, better cooling.
But in this case, the effect of gravity is triggered - the blood tends to merge down - to the legs due to gravity.
What to do? Stay away from heat. And if you're hot, try to lie down and raise your legs or cool your skin in the shower.
Because of being overweight, there is a much higher risk of leg swelling in the ankles, because the heart needs to work much harder by pumping blood through the body.
Excess fat also puts pressure on the veins and arteries, squeezing them and making them narrower.
Women may notice leg swelling during menstruation or several days before it.
This is due to fluid retention associated with a drop in the levels of the sex hormone progesterone
Salt is the main reason, swelling can be prevented by increasing the intake of water and other fluids, which will help wash out excess salt from the body. It is also recommended to reduce the consumption of salty foods such as chips.
Adding diuretic garlic or pineapple to the diet, as well as walking, will help reduce the swelling.
photo of ankle outflow in tight in shoes
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Blood through the walls of blood vessels can impregnate the surrounding tissue. This leads to swelling of individual areas.
How is bursitis manifested?
If the ankle movable joint is swollen, then inflammation of the synovial bag may develop. A tumor of the foot joint is associated with a pathological accumulation of intraarticular fluid. In addition to edema, the patient is disturbed by the red leg and a severe attack of pain, which is difficult to remove with medication. Bursitis is manifested by additional signs:
- regional enlargement of the lymph nodes,
- impaired mobility of the ankle joint,
- weakness and malaise.
If the area below the lower limb turns red and swollen, then this may be a stretching of the ligamentous apparatus. With such a violation, edema develops rapidly due to hemorrhage in the tissue. Additional symptoms bother the patient:
- deformation processes in the heel area,
- severe pain attacks
- inability to step on a sore foot.
How to provide first aid?
In the first hours after the injury, the cold compress, which is applied for several minutes, relieves redness and swelling in the ankle joint zone well.
The sooner first aid is provided, the greater the chance of a favorable outcome. When the leg is swollen, the following actions are performed:
- Immobilize a damaged leg.
- Apply cold no more than half an hour.
- The limb is located above the level of the heart.
- Give the victim a pain reliever for severe pain.
- Deliver the patient to a medical facility.
What to do and how to treat?
If the swelling of the left or right ankle joint, it is necessary to establish the source of the violation. It is possible to remove unpleasant symptoms only after determining the root cause of the deviation.
Effective elimination of external pathological symptoms is carried out through medications. It is possible to use special ointments purchased at a pharmacy or prepared from natural ingredients.
If the left or right leg is swollen, it is possible to resort to the help of physiotherapy prescribed by a doctor.
Foot swelling medications
There are some types of medications that cause leg swelling:
- Calcium channel blockers for cardiac arterial pressure Nifedipine and Isradipine.
- Similarly, some women on HRT (hormone replacement therapy) find that a swollen ankle is a side effect.
- Some antidepressants can also cause swelling.
- Birth control pills or drugs to replace estrogen.
- Testosterone preparations.
- Corticosteroids and other anti-inflammatory drugs, such as NSAIDS.
- Some medicines for blood pressure and diabetes drugs are Avandia and Actos.
- Alcohol can also cause swelling in both the ankles and legs.
Wearing tight shoes
It is very important to choose comfortable and free shoes. This is especially true for sports.
During physical activity, to ensure a normal outflow from the limbs, it is necessary to wear special sports shoes. It also allows you to remove excessive load from the feet and redistribute it throughout the musculoskeletal system.
Idiopathic leg edema
Most often observed in women aged 20 to 30 years, also known as orthostatic edema, cyclic edema, periodic edema and fluid edema:
- The weight of the patient increases by a kilogram or more during the day.
- Leg edema is present throughout the menstrual cycle, which distinguishes it from premenstrual edema, when most women experience generalized swelling and weight gain a few days before the onset of menstruation.
- In addition to edema of the lower extremities, edema appears, affecting the face and hands.
In this case, only medication selected by a doctor is indicated. If swelling is serious, spironolactone 50 mg is prescribed. per day often together, if necessary, with a small dose (12.5-25 mg) of hydrochlorothiazide. Loop-like diuretics should be avoided.
- heart diseases,
- kidney disease
- liver disease
- chronic sleep apnea
- diabetes complications.
All these diseases are quite serious, and the treatment of any of their symptoms, including leg edema, should be carried out under the supervision of a doctor.
- Heart failure causing edema is almost always accompanied by sudden shortness of breath.
- Kidney disease can lead to swelling in the lower legs and bags around the eyes.
- In liver disease, obstructed blood flow leads to edema in the abdominal cavity or lower extremities.
Diuretics for swelling of the legs
Often the only way to treat edema is to treat the condition that causes it. In some cases, doctors prescribe a diuretic, diuretics, which help flush out salt and extra fluid through the urine.
With leg edema, diuretics of different groups are used. All of them have a number of contraindications and undesirable effects, so they should be prescribed by a doctor. Only a doctor will be able to accurately determine the cause of swelling of the lower extremities, choose the best remedy for a particular patient, calculate his dosage and regimen.
In practice, they have proven themselves:
- Torasemide (Trifas, Britomar, Diuver),
- Ethacrine Acid (Uregit),
- Furosemide (Lasix, Furostim).
They work directly in the loop structure of the kidney nephron, contributing to the elimination of fluids and salts from the body. The effect of their intake is the strongest and fastest, so they should be prescribed with extreme caution so as not to lead to dehydration. The action ends in 4-6 hours.
- decompensated renal or hepatic failure,
- serious cardiovascular diseases (myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, stenosis of heart valves, etc.),
- arterial hypotension,
- urinary obstruction,
- coma and precomatose conditions,
- pronounced water-electrolyte imbalance,
- allergy and sensitivity to drugs of this group,
- pregnancy and lactation.
- lowering blood pressure,
- high uric acid content
- inflammation of the connective tissue of the kidneys,
- inhibition of insulin production,
- negative impact on the hearing and vestibular apparatus.
This group of drugs is used for emergency therapy (edema of vital organs, hypertensive crisis, etc.). In chronic conditions, loop diuretics are prescribed in short courses with breaks of two weeks.
During pregnancy, the uterus greatly increases in size. This is especially noticeable in the early stages. Such changes cannot but affect the state of other organs and systems of the body.
The inferior vena cava, which is responsible for supplying blood to the extremities, is compressed. This leads to impaired blood circulation and, consequently, swelling.
Thiazides (Hydrochlorothiazide, Indapamide and their analogues)
These diuretics are used most often. They have a diuretic effect of moderate strength and have a cumulative effect. They can be prescribed for a long time (several months). The effect appears after 60-120 minutes and lasts up to 10 hours. They reduce the reverse penetration of chlorine and sodium ions, have a vasodilating effect.
Frequent negative effects:
- increased glucose concentration,
- joint pain
- dyspeptic symptoms
- hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia.
- pregnancy and lactation
- kidney pathology accompanied by anuria,
- decompensated liver disease,
- Hard currency
- severe gout.
These are aldosterone antagonists (Veroshpiron, Spironol) and sodium channel blockers (Amiloride, Triamteren, etc.).
They are often prescribed in combination with other diuretics, since they differ in insufficient diuretic effect, but allow you to save potassium.
Veroshpiron and its analogues prevent the retention of water and sodium. The diuretic effect is manifested on 2-5 days and lasts several days. These drugs are used to increase aldosterone levels.
- adrenal insufficiency
- pronounced renal and hepatic pathology,
- diabetic nephropathy,
- hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia and hyponatremia,
- pathology of the menstrual cycle in women.
Unwanted actions ::
- dyspeptic disorders,
- muscle spasms,
- headaches, dizziness and drowsiness,
- decreased erection in men
- disruptions in the cycle and engorgement of the mammary glands in women.
Amiloride and its analogues increase the permeability of the outlet tubules of the nephron, increasing the yield of water with sodium and reducing the loss of potassium. The result appears after 2-4 hours and lasts about 7-16 hours.
They are not recommended for people with acute renal failure and hyperekalemia. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, and decreased systemic pressure. They also, like other diuretics, should not be used by women in position and during lactation.
The first steps in swelling
If you have severely swollen lower limbs, the first thing to do is to consult a specialist. He will accurately determine the causes of such changes and will appoint a set of procedures that will help get rid of them.
But what if the specialist has several days before the appointment and the condition worsens? There are some tips that will help slightly reduce puffiness before a visit to the doctor:
- Before going to bed, take a pose so that your leg is slightly raised. You can put it on a high pillow or a special roller.
- Reduce your fluid intake throughout the day. One and a half liters of water is the volume that will help maintain all metabolic processes in the body. It is better to refuse other drinks.
- Reduce your salt intake or completely eliminate it from your diet. At first it will be unusual to adhere to such a diet. But after some time all the products will seem to be much tastier to the body.
- Take a contrast shower 1-2 times a day.
- Choose comfortable and free shoes that will not squeeze your foot and ankle.
- Massage the affected area several times a day. Massage the legs with light circular motions, without much effort.
- If you are overweight, you need to seriously think about losing weight. Start with proper nutrition, then you can add simple exercises, gradually increasing the load on the body.
These rules will not completely relieve you of the problem in the presence of serious diseases, but they will become an excellent basis for treatment and improve your condition.
Diagnosis of any disease begins with an initial examination by a doctor. At this stage, a preliminary diagnosis can be made, which is further confirmed by more accurate research methods.
The doctor should examine the patient's card, find out about all complaints, symptoms.
Further, the specialist can use the following procedures to determine the patient's condition:
- Measurement of body temperature and swollen area.
- Measurement of blood pressure in the body, etc.d.
After that, the doctor prescribes further research methods, depending on the results obtained at this stage.
Instrumental research methods
Instrumental research methods are very effective in obtaining accurate results about the patient's condition.
The following procedures may be used for this problem:
- Blood chemistry.
- General urine analysis.
- Hormonal profile.
After receiving the results of the study, treatment is prescribed.
Quite often, doctors prescribe medications. For edema, it is recommended:
- Medications for oral administration.
- Medicines for external use.
Diuretics can be attributed to the first type of medications that are prescribed for swelling. They are able to locally remove excess water from the body.
With ischemic vascular diseases, medications are prescribed that lower the level of cholesterol in the body and prevent the formation of new blood clots.
For external use drugs in this case include various gels and ointments. Their main functions are the following items:
- Strengthening the walls of blood vessels.
- The fight against inflammation.
- Local improvement of blood circulation and cooling.
- Removing pain.
Effective and affordable means of this category are:
Physiotherapy can include physical therapy and treatment with special innovative devices.
Physiotherapy exercises should be prescribed by a specialist taking into account the patient’s health status. It can be aimed at reducing weight, strengthening joints and ligaments, increasing vascular tone, etc.
Only regular exercise complexes of physiotherapy exercises will help to achieve excellent results. In addition to exercises, you can add regular walks (hiking, cycling), yoga or Pilates.
The following procedures can be attributed to physiotherapy:
- UV exposure.
- Magnetic therapy.
- Electrical stimulation of the affected structures in the body, etc.
Causes of unilateral edema
- Different types of foot injuries. Swelling is provoked by sprains, fractures, bruises, and torn ligaments. For example, ankle injury leads to a local violation of the integrity of the circulatory network. From the damaged vessels and capillaries, blood is poured into nearby areas, unilateral edema with a hematoma occurs. The skin on the leg changes color, becomes cyanotic. If the fracture occurred in the ankle, the swelling on the affected leg may be such that it completely restricts any movement. After an injury of this specificity, swelling in the ankle persists for a very long time.
- Thrombosis. Common pathologies of the vasculature, characterized by narrowing of the lumen in the vessels due to the formation of blood clots - blood clots. They help slow down blood flow, disrupt the blood supply to individual organs. The formation of thrombotic clots in the area of the lower extremities leads to swelling of the feet, ankles, because they lack the necessary amount of oxygen. Blood clots rarely form symmetrically; if they are more pronounced on the left, the left leg swells.
- The course of infectious processes. The presence of infection often provokes swelling in certain parts of the body. A local temperature increase may be noted (a rush of heat to a limited area is felt), painful sensations, noticeable redness, and redness of the skin are increasing. Similar situations are associated with the occurrence of abscesses, phlegmon, wounds on the leg, into which the infection penetrates. It is necessary to see a doctor, because the infection can spread from a local focus throughout the body and lead to sepsis.
- Joint inflammation.Arthritis and arthrosis, characterized by the presence of inflammatory processes, provoke swelling in the tissues adjacent to the affected joint. Due to progressive degenerative changes in the cartilage tissue, the joints undergo deformation, soft tissues are displaced, blood flow is disturbed in them, which provokes the appearance of edema.
- The consequences of insect bites. The body responds to the injection of poison by insects with an allergic reaction. In summer, mosquitoes and midges attack the skin of bare legs and ankles. At the site of the bite, itching, burning, pain, and ankle swelling are felt.
Sometimes an allergic reaction can be so strong, for example, when a bee or wasp stings, that the swelling spreads up to the knee joint.
- Pathology of varicose veins. Violation of the internal valves in the veins, a change in the elasticity and tone of the vessels weakens the blood flow, promotes the penetration of blood and lymph into nearby tissues. Swollen veins with nodular structures on one of the legs can cause swelling in the ankle.
Causes of bilateral edema
Situations when legs swell in the ankle region on both sides at the same time can occur both due to the negative influence of external factors and due to the patient’s systemic pathologies.
- Wrong selection of shoes. A comfortable position of the feet provides good support for the whole body, contributes to the correct redistribution of the load on the lower extremities throughout the day. However, wearing shoes with high heels unevenly loads the toes, violates the trophism of the muscle fibers of the legs, making them less flexible and elastic. Towards the end of the day, a heel lover experiences heaviness in her ankles. So that the legs do not get tired and the ankles do not swell, you need to walk in heels for a limited time. For classes in the gym, you need to choose the most comfortable option that redistributes the load.
If a woman is forced to remain in a standing or sitting position for a long time, for example, when working on a conveyor, her venous and lymphatic outflow from the lower extremities is partially disturbed. For this reason, swelling in the ankles often appears.
- Overweight. Obese women experience an increased level of stress on all body systems. In the legs, due to overloads, problems begin with the outflow of lymph and blood, resulting in swelling. The bones on the ankles look swimming, the tissues around them swell.
- State of pregnancy. The fetus significantly increases the size of the uterus in the third trimester, this affects the displacement of some organs, as a result of which the vessels are compressed. Blood supply to the extremities worsens, stagnation occurs, which is manifested in the appearance of edema on the legs, especially in the legs, ankles.
- Renal pathology. Due to impaired renal function, changes in the water-salt balance occur. In the body, problems begin with the removal of fluid, because of which its excess volume accumulates in the extracellular space of tissues. Puffiness is present not only on the ankles and legs, it is also noticeable on the face and upper limbs.
- Cardiac pathologies, heart failure, and other disorders in the circulatory system. Blood pumping through the body is carried out with deviations, the legs begin to swell in the ankles first, later other parts of the body are involved. Swelling is not loose, but dense, with a bluish skin, intensifies in the evening.
- Lymphatic drainage problems. For various reasons, absorption by lymph capillaries may change, structural transformations gradually develop in the tissues, an abnormal proliferation of connective fibers begins. The legs look swollen, pasty, the bone on the ankle cannot be seen due to folds of swollen skin.
The use of traditional medicine
One or two folk remedies that can be selected in accordance with the individual characteristics of the patient’s body perfectly complement the main therapy.
Recommend such products for external use:
- Performing compresses of blue clay. Diluted to a semi-liquid state, the clay powder is applied to the ankles and incubated for 1 hour. Such a compress can be used twice a day.
- Applying a compress with sea salt. In the prepared solution (100 g of salt per 1 liter of water), a dense tissue is moistened and applied to the ankles. The course is 10 days.
Overlapping grated raw potato gruel. After squeezing out the excess liquid, the mass is applied in a thick layer to the swelling, fixing with an insulating bandage. The course is not less than a week.
- Light massage with rubbing fir oil.
- Rubbing tinctures of Kalanchoe, previously prepared from 1 tbsp. l leaves and 100 ml of vodka. You need to insist at least 10 days.
- Using shredded birch leaves to fill socks that are worn for a couple of hours.
Among the funds used inside, decoctions and infusions from medicinal plants and products are useful:
- A decoction of parsley roots. It is advisable to thoroughly grind the roots, pour them with boiling water and insist in a thermos for 8 hours. Take in small portions with lemon juice.
- Freshly squeezed pumpkin juice.
Flaxseed jelly. It is necessary to boil 1 tbsp. l seeds in 0.5 l of water for 10 minutes, cool and take half a glass twice a day.
- A decoction of the leaves of the densely branched astragalus is drunk as a tonic.
- 1 tsp Milk milk juice mixed with egg yolk is consumed 3 times a day.
- A mixture of carrot, cucumber and lemon juices in equal proportions, diluted with water 1: 1, is a useful and effective diuretic.
- A decoction of dried carrot tops is drunk as tea, 150 ml three times a day.
- Horsetail decoction is drunk 100 ml twice a day.
The doctor will advise the most optimal option from the list of folk recipes, taking into account the patient's chronic pathologies, because some herbs can not be used for diseases of the kidneys or heart.
To prevent the appearance of swelling of the ankles, women should adhere to simple rules:
- monitor nutrition so that body weight does not exceed standard values for its age,
- balance the diet, minimize the use of foods that help retain excess fluid,
- additionally take vitamins to maintain vascular tone,
- dose the load level during the day,
- to choose comfortable shoes for everyday wear, and leave high heels for celebrations,
- daily do gymnastic exercises that improve blood circulation,
- Do not wear knee-high socks and heavy rubber socks.
Irina, 35 years old
Six months, when I started doing fitness, before that I was not particularly fond of sports. After walking a couple of weeks, I noticed that my ankles swell after training. A familiar therapist advised me to get a diagnosis. But nothing serious was discovered. On the recommendation of a doctor, I use Lyoton, Venolgon according to the instructions. Slightly changed the training schedule, so that with ointment and a decrease in the load of the ankle stopped swelling.
Svetlana, 40 years old
After the second birth, a couple of years ago, my legs began to ache, and my ankles swelled periodically. The therapist sent to an angiologist. I doubted whether it was necessary to be examined, but as a result it turned out that I had been given the initial stage of the development of varicose veins. I drank Detralex course in 3 months. Edema does not appear anymore, but discomfort sometimes worries. The doctor said that after a month you need to repeat the course of treatment, but she will prescribe another drug. So I do not regret that I turned to specialists on time.
Anya, 25 years old
At 5 months of gestation, ankles began to swell.The gynecologist advised herbal decoctions (field horsetail, corn stigmas, parsley root), since I have no problems with the kidneys. From time to time I also drink juices, but not purchased, but home-made, carrots with cucumbers. Puffiness is sometimes still manifested, but it has become much smaller.
Inflammatory foot tumors in the ankles
The inflammatory process in the joints is accompanied, which is associated with the destruction of cartilage with arthrosis and arthritis, appear on one of the limbs. Previously, the patient is concerned about nightly aching pains in the ankles.
Edema can develop as a result of chemotherapy or radiation exposure for cancer.
The mechanical cause of edema
It is associated with sprains or a violation of the integrity of the ankle joint. Mechanical injuries are characterized by hemorrhage inside the joint and the formation of a hematoma, severe pain.
Overweight women, leading a sedentary lifestyle, preferring to wear high-heeled shoes, often suffer from an ailment.
The use of excessive amounts of fluid, as well as tight, shoes not sized to fit, causes swelling.
Ankle injuries can lead to the formation of a benign formation at the bottom of the ankle - a hygroma, the cavity of which is filled with viscous contents. Eliminate the tumor surgically.
Pathology appears due to improper outflow of lymph due to defective work of venous valves. As a result, fluid stagnation occurs in the vessels in the ankle region. Legs swell, they feel heaviness, fullness. The danger is that in this state blood clots can form in the veins and block the vascular lumen.
With the appearance of blood clots, normal blood circulation is disrupted - a person can die.
An anomaly can develop near one of the ankles or on both at once.
Causes of edema
The occurrence of edema in the ankle region is provoked by various factors: both internal and external. The main reasons that ankles swell in a person become:
- leg fatigue caused by improperly selected shoes, wearing excessively narrow synthetic trousers,
- excess weight,
- an allergic reaction as a response to the use of certain medicines, cosmetics, food products,
- insect bites.
Such manifestations disappear on their own, if we exclude the effect of a provoking factor on the body.
Ankle edema can also indicate that a person has diseases of the internal organs and their systems:
- Often, puffiness accompanies diseases of the kidneys, heart, blood vessels (varicose veins), and diabetes mellitus.
- Edema occurs due to diseases of the musculoskeletal system (with damage to the ankle joint, ligaments).
Swelling also occurs in women who are pregnant. This is due to an increase in pressure on the internal organs by an increasing uterus.
Rheumatism and Rheumatic Carditis
Rheumatism is a non-infectious disease, manifested by inflammation of the joints, as well as various parts of the heart (myocarditis, endocarditis and pericarditis). The disease is usually accompanied by symmetrical swelling of the legs, painless when pressed. The liquid accumulates gradually, swelling increases in the evening, and disappears completely or partially during the night.
With rheumatic heart disease, fever, shortness of breath (even at rest), discomfort in the heart region (appears when lying on the left side), heart rhythm disturbances are also observed.
The development of rheumatism and rheumatic heart disease most often occurs against a background of streptococcal infection, which primarily affects the respiratory tract. Such diseases require serious treatment, so the patient should be under the supervision of a doctor.It is important to note that the first signs of these diseases are often blurred, they can easily be confused with the usual fatigue or the consequences of stress experienced. Ignoring these symptoms is very dangerous, because if untreated, the ailment can turn into a chronic form.
Why does a leg swell after a stroke
Swelling of the lower extremities after a stroke is associated with the process of damage to blood vessels, provoked by a sharp jump in pressure (shock). Acute, instantaneous disturbances in the blood supply to the brain cause a number of symptomatic disorders in the body, including swelling of the legs. A sharp push of blood through the vessel at the time of crisis pushes the liquid mass into the tissue, causing swelling.
Is it easy to cure swelling after a stroke? Unlikely. It all depends on the degree of brain damage and the general condition of the patient's body. In any case, leg swelling, this is just one point in a whole range of injuries requiring competent treatment.
Based on the studies, only a doctor can determine what to do in a situation in which legs swell after a stroke.
First aid measures
To quickly reduce puffiness, it is recommended:
- limit the physical activity of the patient as much as possible,
- apply ice to the affected area,
- give the foot an elevated position,
- reduce salt intake,
- drink enough (but not excessive!) amounts of clean water.
So that the ankle does not swell even more, it is advised to use those foods that help to remove excess fluid from the body (watermelon, melon), drink fresh berry fruit drinks. If the patient's condition does not improve, you should consult a specialist.
Edema caused by heart failure has the following features:
- edema is formed on the legs of both legs,
- they do not hurt, but become painful when pressed,
- the skin on the swollen areas of the cyanotic shade, cold to the touch,
- swelling is motionless,
- fluid accumulates in the evening or in the morning (after sleep).
Patients with heart failure often complain that their legs are numb and freeze. With prolonged lying, the face, hands and lower back can swell. In addition to edema, pathology is manifested by arrhythmia, periodic chest pain and shortness of breath that occurs with the slightest exertion.
Heart failure is very dangerous. Ignoring its symptoms and refusing treatment can lead to the most sad consequences. Having noticed the swelling of the legs, accompanied by the listed symptoms, it is urgent to consult a doctor.
To relieve swelling, the patient is prescribed diuretics (Furosemide, Torasemide, Trifas, Hydrochlorothiazide). People suffering from cardiovascular diseases are shown taking Trigrim, Veroshpiron. Medications should be taken carefully, since many of them have their contraindications.
Treat swelling on the legs and local means. Widely used Troxevasin, Essaven gel, Lyoton. They are smeared on the outside of the ankles.
Preventive measures to prevent swelling
Prevention of the appearance of edema of the lower extremities includes:
- Avoiding ankle injuries and even distribution of physical activity on the lower limbs. In everyday life, women are advised to wear comfortable low-heeled shoes and loose-fitting clothing. It is worth giving preference to natural breathing fabrics.
- Compliance with a healthy lifestyle and a healthy diet. Patients should eat fresh vegetables and fruits, limit salty, fatty, drink enough clean water.
- Prevention of obesity and overweight.
- Health monitoring: timely undergo all planned medical examinations, treat existing diseases.
- Strict adherence to safety during sports training and competitions.
- Providing the body with good rest, observing sleep patterns.
- The intake of vitamins (B, E, C).
If the ankle regularly swells, the bone turns red and hurts, then you should definitely visit a doctor. Only he can reliably establish the source of the origin of the disease and prescribe the correct course of therapy. Self-medication can aggravate the pathology and worsen the patient's condition.
Pathologies associated with venous insufficiency are diverse. Thrombosis and thrombophlebitis of the vessels of the legs are manifested by constant swelling and pain. The skin above the edema becomes red and hot, swelling to the touch is dense, not extending with your fingers. Patients note a fever in the lower extremities (foot soles “burn”). Diseases of this kind are very dangerous and require urgent treatment. Procrastination is fraught with very serious (and even fatal) complications.
Varicose disease is a very common problem that plagues about a third of women over 30 and more than half of women of retirement age. The first signs are a feeling of heaviness and pain in the legs, as well as the gradual development of edema on the calves and ankles, intensifying in the evening and disappearing after a night's rest. If left untreated, the veins in the legs become noticeable. They resemble twisted, clumsy cords with convex knots. In severe cases, the skin on the ankles acquires a brown tint, hemorrhages and trophic ulcers appear.
Venous insufficiency of the lower extremities is a dangerous condition. It is treated for a long time with medication and wearing compression underwear, and in some cases with surgical intervention.
With severe liver damage (cirrhosis, malignant neoplasms), a condition called portal hypertension develops. It is associated with the cessation of the production of albumin, the deficiency of which leads to metabolic disorders and stagnation of blood in a large circle of blood circulation. As a result, dense swelling of the legs in the ankles is formed. Other signs of portal hypertension are changes in skin tone (yellowing), redness of the palms of the hands, accumulation of fluid in the anterior abdominal wall (ascites), difficulty breathing. In men, gynecomastia develops (breast enlargement).
Swelling of both legs in the ankles may indicate insufficient production of thyroid hormones. Edema looks like pads, when pressed with your fingers deep pits remain on them. If the pathology progresses, myxedema can develop - a condition manifested by the accumulation of fluid in all tissues of the body. The skin of such patients seems puffy and lifeless, its surface coarsens, peels, acquires a yellowish tint.
Gout is a metabolic disorder in which uric acid salts (urates) accumulate in the body. They settle in the internal cavities of the joints, including the joints of the legs. In the affected areas, inflammatory processes develop, manifested by severe paroxysmal pain, redness of the skin and swelling.
An increase in legs in volume with varicose veins
The leg often swells against the background of varicose veins. Veins are blood vessels through which blood flows from various organs to the heart. The veins of the legs collect blood from the lower extremities and go from the bottom up. Blood flow is regulated by the valve apparatus. In violation of this process, blood flow slows down, which leads to stagnation. Blood exits through the wall of the vessel, which leads to swelling.
With varicose veins, the veins become less elastic, convoluted and expand. Subsequently, nodes are formed. This ailment affects 30-40% of the female population. In men, varicose veins are detected a little less often. The following causes of varicose veins of the legs and the appearance of edema are distinguished:
- long static load (standing or sitting),
- valve weakness,
- heavy physical labor
- long flights and travels,
- occupational hazards
- increase in blood volume during pregnancy.
Risk factors include insufficient dietary intake of raw fruits and vegetables, physical inactivity, smoking, overweight, and poor organization of work and leisure. With varicose veins, the legs hurt and swell. Swelling is characteristic of the stage of subcompensation and decompensation of varicose veins. In the first case, mild swelling of the foot, ankle or lower leg is observed. Most often, he appears in the evening.
After a night's sleep, swelling of the legs below or above the knee disappears. The appearance of puffiness, which does not disappear after a short rest, indicates a third class of varicose veins in humans. Swelling of the foot or lower leg is not the only symptom of the disease. There is heaviness in the legs, the appearance of spider veins and nodes under the skin. Swelling combined with cramps, dull pain, skin itching. Visually defined dilated veins.
Allergic edema of the legs may develop in response to taking certain medications, insect bites, or eating certain types of foods. The lesion looks like a dense uniform swelling, on which there are no traces when pressed. The surface of the skin turns red, becomes covered with a small reddish rash and is very itchy. The patient complains of pain in the affected limb, which occurs with the slightest exertion or prolonged stay in the same position.
To solve the problem, it is urgent to stop contact with the allergen and take an antihistamine.
What can be done at home
At home, you can adjust your diet, from time to time do simple exercise therapy and rub the swollen limbs with various decoctions and ice cubes, apply compresses.
An effective remedy is contrasting baths. Pour 2 basins, in one cold water, in the second heat. Alternately, we lower our legs into one or another basin.
Juices based on cranberries, lingonberries, decoctions of wild rose, birch buds, cabbage leaf and parsley have useful properties.
Tramp found use from edema. You can use dry powder, stirring it with water until the consistency of the ointment is formed, apply at night, wrapping the area of the leg with a cloth. Wash off with cool water in the morning. Or buy a ready-made ointment in a pharmacy, which is called "Badyaga".
A compress of essential oils is prepared by mixing equal amounts of camphor oil and olives, applied to the swelling area and wrapped in a warm piece of cloth. Holds for several hours and washed off with cool water.
To facilitate well-being, eliminate redness and swelling, it is necessary to do the following physiotherapeutic procedures:
- electrophoresis with drugs
- the effect of diadynamic current,
- paraffin treatment,
- ultrasound therapy.
Ankle edema: causes, symptoms and treatment methods
Swelling of the lower extremities is often associated with concomitant pathologies, injuries, and banal fatigue. The accumulation of excess fluid prevents full life.
Ankle edema can signal developing problems of the body. In addition to discomfort, the tumor is often accompanied by pain.
Causes of edema
The ankle joint has a complex structure. Without a reliable protective muscle layer, a fat foundation, part of the leg is a rather vulnerable area. Exposure to external and internal injuries entails the risk of complications, problem consequences.
In addition to direct joint damage, appropriate diseases can provoke ankle edema. The main causes of the appearance of pathology are as follows:
- getting injured (fractures, bruises, sprains),
- vascular disease
- sore joint
- other problems.
Important! Edema of the ankle is manifested mainly by the inflammatory process, pain, swollen soft tissues.
How to treat a tumor under the knee in the back
Drug treatment includes the use of the following drugs:
- Tablet formulations & # 8212, Diosmin, Phlebodia 600, Vazoket, Diovenor 600.
- Venotonics based on a combination of diosmin and hesperidin & # 8212, Detralex, Venus.
- Intensive Venotonic Balm Shungite.
- Medical products containing a synthetic analogue of flavonoid rutin - troxerutin. The best medicines in this area are Troxevasin, Troxevenol, Troxerutin.
- Pentoxifylline-based medicines. They are necessary to increase vascular tone and reduce capillary permeability. It should be noted that these drugs can cause a number of side symptoms, therefore, they are prescribed only after studying the characteristics of the patient's body.
- Relieve pain flavonoid-based venotonics. In addition to eliminating puffiness, drugs of this group stop trophic changes and eliminate cramps. Popular drugs in this form are considered "Antistax", "Diosmin", "Venarus", "Vazoket", "Detralex".
- Also included in the course of treatment saponin-based angioprotectors. Usually, doctors prescribe Eskuzan drops, Venitan cream and gel.
- To stimulate the reduction of smooth muscle fibers will help funds with P-vitamin activity. These drugs include Venoruton, Troxerutin, Troxevasin.
- Cure the disease completely help synthetic drugs that can stop inflammatory mediators & # 8212, Glivenol, Tribenoside.
- You can speed up recovery with combination medicines Angionorm, Doppelgerts, Venorm. They will relieve the symptoms of inflammation, eliminate puffiness and pain.
Popular practices can relieve symptoms of inflammation and improve local blood circulation. For this, doctors advise using various compresses and consuming tinctures. Diuretic drinks will help remove excess fluid from the body and improve overall well-being.
Treatment with folk remedies for swelling under the knee in the back is aimed at relieving symptoms. However, it is impossible to eliminate the disease with completely healing herbs, compresses and lotions.
Learn what to do with temperature for arthritis and arthrosis.
In addition, keep an eye on the diet. Add dried fruits to the daily menu. In the process of treatment, it will not be superfluous to use flax seeds. They will cleanse the body of toxins and toxins, as well as resume the outflow of stagnant lymph.
To maintain the effect after drug exposure, apply ice or another cold object to the inflamed part every day. After cold therapy, steam your feet in warm water and salt for ten minutes.
The most common cause of ankle swelling is injury. Lesions are classified by type:
- bruise - occurs due to an external blow. The degree of edema depends on the strength of the mechanical impact,
- Stretching - tendon rupture occurs, ligaments are damaged. Symptoms affect the ankle area directly. An area of a damaged limb can affect a hematoma,
- fractures are more characteristic of the talus. The tumor affects the area surrounding the ankle joint and the site of injury. Characterized by constant severe pain,
- wounds that are closed and open. They entail stagnation of blood, provoking edema.
Edema of the ankle during mechanical damage is caused by a violation of the microcirculation of blood. Solving the problem on their own is not recommended, but first aid in the form of movement restrictions, a cooling compress can be provided.
Swelling of the leg with vascular pathologies is accompanied by a modification of the veins.The main diseases of the system are:
- thrombophlebitis is an inflammatory process that is acute. In parallel, there is pain, fever, swelling, loss of strength,
- thrombosis - causes blockage of the veins. Disturbed blood flow provokes an accumulation of excess fluid in the ankle. Edema is characteristic of a leg in which a blood clot formed. The disease develops at a slow pace, a gradual inflammation of the soft tissues in the joint.
If a tumor is found under the knee in the back, what to do next should be indicated by your doctor. Self-healing is dangerous for the patient’s life, as you can provoke the development of dangerous diseases and create conditions for the rapid progression of the disease.
In the event of puffiness, it is necessary to undergo medical gymnastics. A good effect is the lifting of small objects from the floor with your toes, as well as the rotation of the legs in a sitting position. It is useful to strain and relax your fingers every two hours.
You can relieve stress by raising your legs to a raised platform. You need to lie in this position every day in the evening for thirty minutes.
This group of drugs enhances the release of water, sodium and potassium salts from the body. The main effect is expressed in the inhibition of the reverse absorption of chlorine and sodium and increased excretion of potassium. Have the effect of saluretics on the loop of Henle.
Diuretic tablets are used for heart failure to relieve swelling and with high blood pressure.
The main drugs of the saluretic group are:
- Lasix (41-63r).
- Indapamide (46-64r).
- Bufenox (75-105r).
- Hypothiazide (80-130r).
- Britomar (318-448r).
In addition to excess water, these drugs remove such a vital element for the body as potassium. Therefore, at the same time, it is necessary to receive funds aimed at compensating the output element.
Article for you: Leg cramps - causes and treatment, advised by our expert
Swelling of the ankle occurs due to inflammation of the joint tissues. The most common diseases: bursitis, synovitis.
Pathological processes disrupt the circulation of the joint fluid. There is an accumulation of this consistency, forming a painful swelling.
The basis of their action is the creation of high osmotic pressure. Being in the lumen of the tubules and collecting tubules, the active substance of the drug creates hydrostatic stress in the solution, which prevents water from being absorbed back.
Medicines of this group:
Mannitol is used for cerebral edema, serious poisoning, rarely with glaucoma. It is administered only intravenously, since it is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
When the ankle swells, a possible cause is the presence of diseases of the cardiovascular system. Cardiological problems contribute to the accumulation of excess fluid, causing swelling of the lower extremities.
The main signs of ankle swelling are manifested in the presence of the following diseases:
- kidney, liver, lungs,
- heart failure
- reduce cardiac output,
- increased vulnerability of blood vessels, their narrowing.
The most common cause of ankle edema is the presence of joint diseases and trauma. In addition to pathological problems, ankle swelling manifests itself in extreme heat, due to abuse of salt, drugs. More likely to notice ankle edema in people with diabetes mellitus, varicose veins, osteoporosis.
The leg may swell with a number of other diseases:
- gout - affects mainly the fingers of the lower extremities. Pathology is manifested in a violation of metabolic processes, leading to excessive accumulation of uric acid,
- arthrosis - arise due to deformation of the cartilage tissue. The reasons are often uncomfortable shoes, old age.The progress of the disease leads to bone damage. There are pain, discomfort when walking. Osteoarthritis of the knee and ankle often affects women, people with a complete set,
- endocrine disruption,
- bacteria, viruses that hit the ankle joint,
- large physical loads that deform the foot.
Symptoms of edema
The symptoms of ankle edema are diverse. The main signs of swelling depend on the provocateurs of the pathology. For example, pain during mechanical action is felt almost instantly. An undetected disease provokes a gradual increase in spasms.
The list of symptoms can be grouped as follows:
- noticeable pain, increasing with movement of the joint,
- rapid pulse at the site of the lesion,
- limited motor function of the ankle,
- color change of the injured area,
- swelling of the ankles.
In addition to the nature of the pain syndrome, the difference relates to temperature, hardness. Some edema when pressed form a persistent depression or are immediately restored.
Treatment of edema is individual. In addition to medicines, the patient adheres to a therapeutic diet. Correction of the diet is aimed at enhancing the removal of fluid from the body, to avoid its stagnation. It is strictly forbidden to eat foods that include a high concentration of salt.
The most healthy food should contain a complex of vitamins, nutrients. Products that have a beneficial effect on the withdrawal of liquid surplus: vegetables, fruits (cucumbers, watermelon, pumpkin, greens), eggs, low-fat dairy products, herbal teas. You should refrain from convenience foods, canned food, marinades, sweet, flour, citrus fruits, alcohol.
The medical complex, in addition to medicines, diet, physiotherapy, includes traditional medicine against edema. The main options for natural methods of control: herbal decoctions, foot baths, herbal compresses.
Folk recipes offer a wide variety of medicinal products. The following remedies are popular:
- herbal baths of linden, hypericum, birch buds. The procedure is carried out half an hour before bedtime,
- homemade compress of yarrow, sage, chamomile flowers. The tool is pre-cooled, held for 10-15 minutes,
- a drink including honey, apple cider vinegar,
- decoctions, tinctures based on diuretic plants: flax seeds, elderberry, celandine, horsetail, birch buds.
These funds remove the ankle tumor, removing excess fluid. Alternative drugs work comprehensively or with minor stages of concomitant diseases.
How and how to treat leg swelling in the ankle
Leg swelling is an unpleasant phenomenon, and if the swelling is in the ankle, it should be treated immediately. When stepping on a foot, an affected joint or ligament is affected each time. Which drugs and folk remedies are effective in combating edema, and which are better to put aside, say leading doctors.
Causes of ankle edema
Why are the legs swelling in the ankle region, there are a lot of reasons. The most common doctors call:
- sprains due to injury,
- thrombophlebitis, formed on the basis of blood clots - blood clots,
- infection with an infection that penetrates the abrasion,
- bites of bees, bumblebees and other insects that can cause allergies,
Bilateral swelling of the legs in the ankle disturbs patients for the following reasons:
- The patient does not move much. The normal outflow of lymph is disturbed. If the patient is not able to move around, periodic swapping of the posture and gentle kneading of limbs during the day will help to avoid swelling.
- Wearing uncomfortable, tight shoes not in size, with a narrow toe.
- Excess weight causing a malfunction in the exchange of fluid and blood.
- 2nd trimester of pregnancy.Blood increases in volume, and the growing uterus prevents its outflow from the lower body. Blood circulation becomes sluggish and causes congestion in the lower extremities.
- Kidney dysfunction.
- Heart failure.
- A sharp drop or increase in blood pressure.
- Impaired lymphatic drainage.
How to eliminate edema yourself
The methods that will be described below show a positive result if the edema has not become systematic. According to doctors, in most cases it is enough to give the patient a limb peace. Raise your legs with a small pillow or cushion under them. Thanks to this technique, blood pressure normalizes. Half an hour of rest and swelling will come to naught.
What diuretics can be taken for leg swelling
To consolidate the effect, it is recommended to do a light foot massage. Massage is carried out without pressure and effort. If the ankle edema does not associated with systemic disease, listen to these recommendations of doctors:
- Do not drink too much liquid at night.
- Limit salt intake.
- Take relaxing and soothing baths, alternating warm and contrasting cool water. This method is not suitable for women experiencing critical days and suffering from chronic cystitis, pyelonephritis.
- Apply a compress with ice.
- Include watermelon, melon, vegetable juices, fruit drinks in the diet. They have a diuretic effect.
- Remember that water is trapped in alcohol, coffee, tea and preservation.
- Have a bath a couple of times a week by adding sea salt to the water.
- Wear non-squeezing shoes.
- Exercise, but do not overload your legs too much. Overstrain of the lower extremities, injuries and swelling in the ankle suffer those who lift the barbell.
- Get rid of excess weight. Firstly, this is a load not only for the legs, but also for the cardiovascular, respiratory system. Secondly, picking up shoes is difficult, it squeezes the foot, which makes the swelling even larger.
- Avoid hormones and sedatives.
How to treat when the joints of the legs and arms hurt and swell? Listen to the recommendations of the endocrinologist's doctor, which you must go to.
Proven folk remedies for ankle edema
Alternative medicine helps to get rid of swelling in the ankle area as well as official. Treatment begins with the cleansing of the intestines from toxins and harmful substances. Try these recipes for edema:
- 300 grams of flax seeds pour 1 liter of boiling water. Leave to brew infusion over low heat for 15 minutes and set aside for 1 hour. Add a pleasant aroma to the broth and saturate with vitamins the addition of a small amount of natural fruit juice. Drink a drink on an empty stomach in the morning.
- Pick fresh birch leaves and put them in a bag made of fabric. Dip your sore foot in this bag for 4 hours. A couple of sessions and a slight swelling of the leg, formed in the ankle, will go away.
- Grind the rhizome of parsley and pour boiling water in a volume of ½ liter. Set aside the saucepan in a dark place for 12 hours. After strain the drug, add a couple drops of lemon juice and take to relieve swelling.
- Violation of the movement of blood, expressed in puffiness, is treated with onions. Chop the vegetable finely and mix with 100 grams of sugar. Set aside for 12 hours and apply the onion solution to the ankles.
- Measure ½ cup of sea salt and pour 2 liters of boiling water. Immerse a cloth or gauze in the mixture and attach to the sore spot. The therapeutic course is 2 weeks. The procedure is repeated every day.
- Grind a leaf of Kalanchoe and dilute with alcohol. Put in a dark place for 14 days. Wipe the puffiness with a solution and soon it will disappear.
- If you experience pain in the legs from the knee to the ankle, it is recommended to apply a compress of potatoes.The middle tuber is peeled and grated. Gently apply an even layer of slurry to the ankle. Fix the application with a polyethylene cut and a bandage.
- If there is a swelling, try mixing the clay with water until the consistency of sour cream. Apply mass to inflamed tissue and incubate for 2 hours.
Edema of the ankle joint: causes and treatment
The causes of swelling of the ankle joint can be very different, ranging from the effects of trauma, ending with a malignant tumor and heart damage. Do not underestimate the symptom, as it often indicates a serious illness. The consequences depend not only on the cause, but also on the degree of impaired articular function.
Why does the ankle swell?
The ankle joint is the joint of the bones of the lower leg with the foot. Its edema is a sign of inflammation, accumulation of synovial fluid in the joint cavity or fluid accumulation in the peripheral tissues of the body. The photo shows how the swelling looks in the ankle.
Swelling of the ankle joint is most often caused by trauma or inflammation of the joint tissues
Ankle edema can occur for local and general reasons. Local diseases include those that directly affect the joint area and surrounding tissues - arthritis, arthrosis, synovitis, bursitis, tendonitis. Common include diseases of the internal organs and connective tissue, which are accompanied by swelling of the ankle region.
Treatment directly depends on the cause that led to the swelling. Medications, physiotherapy are used. In some cases, surgical intervention is indicated.
Arthrosis is a degenerative joint disease. The risk of developing osteoarthrosis increases in humans with age. The main symptoms of arthrosis are pain and impaired limb function.
With arthrosis, inflammation is usually absent. This also applies to such signs as redness, local temperature increase. Swelling with arthrosis occurs with the development of complications in the form of reactive synovitis.
Damage to other joint structures
The ankle region can swell with damage to the following structures:
- Tendons. With their inflammation, tendonitis develops.
- The synovial membrane. With inflammation of the synovial membrane, synovitis develops.
- Tendon bag. With inflammation of the bag, bursitis develops.
- Ligaments. The defeat of the ligaments occurs when they are stretched or torn.
With any of these diseases, the ankle region can swell.
Swelling of the ankle region can be a manifestation of not only articular pathology. Symptom may indicate a variety of diseases. What pathologies can cause ankle swelling:
- heart failure,
- glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome,
- systemic lupus erythematosus,
- liver disease
- Varicose veins.
In addition to edema, other symptoms are also characteristic of each pathology. For example, shortness of breath with heart failure, varicose veins with varicose veins, etc.
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How to treat edema
Treatment directly depends on the cause that led to the swelling. Medications, physiotherapy are used. In some cases, surgical intervention is indicated. For example, with traumatic injury, deforming arthrosis or arthritis. It is not recommended to self-medicate, the doctor should select the therapy in each individual case.
What to do in case of injury
If ankle edema occurs after receiving an injury, first aid is necessary:
- Stop the load on the ankle.
- Immobilize (immobilize) the affected limb.
- Apply ice or a cold compress to the affected area.
It is contraindicated to warm a limb or apply folk remedies immediately after injury. For further treatment, consult a doctor.
The main treatment depends on the cause that led to the swelling:
After stopping the acute process, physiotherapy is prescribed - electrophoresis, paraffin therapy, ultraviolet radiation.
What to do if the ankle swells, causes and treatment
The most common ankle edema. This ailment is characteristic not only for people of age, but also for young people. Most of them suffer from women.
Swelling in the ankle is not only a serious cosmetic ailment. It often limits human activity. By evening, the swelling only increases, severe pain and loss of sensitivity of the affected area may appear.
There are problems with the selection of clothes. Closed shoes can squeeze the affected area, which leads to numbness, that is, complete or partial loss of sensitivity. All of the above indicates one thing - when swelling of the ankles of the right leg, left leg, or both legs occurs, you should immediately contact a specialist.