Laryngotracheitis in children is an inflammatory disease mainly of viral or bacterial etiology, in which the inflammatory process extends to the larynx and trachea.
Features of immunity in children, as well as the relatively short length of the airways contribute to a greater predisposition of children to this disease. In childhood, the infectious and inflammatory process that began in the nasopharynx, especially often tends to go down, while the larynx is affected, and then the trachea. In children under six years of age, due to anatomical features, laryngeal lumen narrowing may occur due to laryngotracheitis, which causes respiratory failure - the so-called false croup develops, which carries a potential life threat. Another name for this condition is stenosing laryngotracheitis.
Laryngotracheitis in children often develops as a complication of sinusitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, adenoiditis.
Causes of laryngotracheitis in children and risk factors
The cause of laryngotracheitis in children is infection with viruses and / or bacteria, most often viruses act as an infectious agent. Infection occurs by airborne droplets from a sick person. In most cases, laryngotracheitis develops against the background of acute respiratory diseases: adenovirus infection, parainfluenza, influenza, measles, rubella, chickenpox, scarlet fever.
Bacterial etiology laryngotracheitis can occur when infected with staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci, tuberculosis mycobacteria, mycoplasma, treponema pallidum, chlamydia.
Laryngotracheitis in children often develops as a complication of sinusitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, adenoiditis.
Risk factors for the disease, as well as its transition to a chronic form, include:
- immunodeficiency conditions
- constant breathing through the mouth (in case of violation of nasal breathing against the background of curvature of the nasal septum, allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, atresia of the choan)
- chronic somatic diseases (hepatitis, gastritis, pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis, etc.),
- metabolic disorders
- poor nutrition,
- too hot or cold, excessively dry or wet inhaled air,
- second hand smoke.
Forms of the disease
Laryngotracheitis in children can be acute (uncomplicated and stenosing) and chronic. Chronic, depending on morphological changes in the mucous membrane, is divided into catarrhal, hypertrophic and atrophic forms. Acute laryngotracheitis in children is much more common.
Exacerbations in the chronic form of laryngotracheitis in children are most often observed in the autumn-winter period.
According to the etiological factor, viral, bacterial and mixed forms of laryngotracheitis are isolated.
Clinical manifestations of acute laryngotracheitis in children usually occur against the background of already existing symptoms of an acute infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract (discharge from the nasal cavity, nasal congestion, sore or sore throat, discomfort when swallowing, fever). In this case, the symptoms of laryngotracheitis in children appear already after the patient's body temperature drops to subfebrile values - after improvement, the child's condition worsens again.
Children with acute laryngotracheitis develop hoarseness, discomfort in the larynx (dryness, burning, tickling, foreign body sensation), dry cough, after which there is pain behind the sternum. A cough is usually observed in the morning and night, it can manifest itself in the form of an attack on the background of inhaling cold or dusty air, a deep breath, crying, laughing. In this case, a small amount of sputum mucosa is released, which, when a secondary bacterial infection (or bacterial laryngitis) is attached, acquires a mucopurulent character.
Acute laryngotracheitis in children is often accompanied by an increase in cervical lymph nodes. As a rule, they increase on both sides, painful on palpation.
On examination, marked hyperemia and thickening of the mucous membranes in the affected area are noted. Bacterial laryngotracheitis is characterized by the accumulation of purulent exudate in the lumen of the larynx and trachea. At the initial stage of the disease, the pathological discharge has a liquid consistency, as the pathological process progresses, the exudate becomes thicker, fibrinous films appear on the mucous membranes. In the case of staphylococcal or streptococcal etiology of laryngotracheitis, yellow-green crusts form, which fill the lumen of the respiratory tract.
Treatment of laryngotracheitis in children is usually carried out on an outpatient basis, in the case of the development of false croup, the patient is hospitalized in a hospital.
Stenosing laryngotracheitis is characterized by swelling of the affected mucous membranes, a pronounced narrowing of the larynx, which makes it difficult to move air, noisy inhalation and exhalation (dry wheezing can be heard during inhalation - the so-called stridor breathing), shortness of breath, tachycardia.
With the catarrhal form of chronic laryngotracheitis in children, there is hyperemia of the affected mucous membranes with a cyanotic hue, expansion of the submucous blood vessels, petechial hemorrhages in the submucosal layer, arising due to increased vascular permeability.
In the case of the development of a chronic hypertrophic form of the disease, epithelial hyperplasia of the affected mucous membranes, connective tissue elements of the mucous glands and submucosal layer, as well as infiltration of the fibers of the internal muscles of the larynx and trachea (including the muscles of the vocal cords) are noted. With this form of the disease, the thickening of the vocal cords can be limited, in the form of nodules, or diffuse, the formation of cysts, contact ulcers of the larynx or prolapse of the ventricle of the larynx is also possible.
In chronic atrophic laryngotracheitis (the most rare form of laryngotracheitis in children), the cylindrical ciliated epithelium of the mucous membrane is replaced by keratinizing, atrophy of the intraglottal muscles and mucous glands, sclerosis of the connective tissue cell elements of the submucosal layer, and thinning of the vocal cords. The walls of the larynx and trachea are often covered with crusts that form when the secretion of the mucous glands dries.
The air in the room in which the patient is located should be fresh and sufficiently humidified.
Voice disorders in chronic laryngotracheitis range from slight hoarseness, which occurs mainly in the morning and evening, to constant hoarseness and sometimes complete aphonia. In chronic laryngotracheitis in children, the cough is permanent, which may cause the development of sleep disorders in such patients. The amount of sputum in this form of the disease, as a rule, increases.
Exacerbations in the chronic form of laryngotracheitis in children are most often observed in the autumn-winter period.
For the diagnosis of laryngotracheitis in children, a collection of complaints and anamnesis, a physical examination are carried out. If necessary, the diagnosis is confirmed by instrumental and laboratory studies.
The identification of an infectious agent in laryngotracheitis in children can be carried out by conducting bacteriological examination of sputum and excreted from the pharynx and nose, sputum microscopy, as well as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence reaction, polymerase chain reaction. In case of detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis, a TB consultation is necessary.
In complex diagnostic cases, microlaryngoscopy may be required, which makes it possible, if necessary, to take material for biopsy.
In chronic laryngotracheitis (especially when detecting hypertrophic changes), it may be necessary to use frontal computed tomography of the larynx, endoscopic biopsy. Based on the results of these studies, an oncologist consultation may be required.
In order to identify possible bronchopulmonary complications, an X-ray examination of the lungs is performed.
The cause of laryngotracheitis in children is infection with viruses and / or bacteria, most often viruses act as an infectious agent.
Differential diagnosis of laryngotracheitis in children with foreign bodies of the larynx and trachea, diphtheria, bronchial asthma, pharyngeal abscess, and malignant neoplasms is required.
What is acute laryngotracheitis?
Acute laryngotracheitis in children
This disease was formerly called false croup due to a characteristic barking cough. Now this term is more applicable to conditions of throat edema of an allergic nature. Acute laryngotracheitis affects the pharynx and trachea of a child, mainly boys aged one to seven years. This “selectivity” of the disease is most likely due to the fact that little girls are less at risk of their health in outdoor games in the cold season. The boys are active and very mobile, strive to take off their clothes that interfere with playing, are supercooled, and as a result they become ill.
Treatment of acute laryngotracheitis in children requires the correct diagnosis of the disease. This disease develops rapidly and manifests itself quite acutely.
An initially cold child feels the usual malaise, weakness, lethargy, a runny nose, and a headache.
Acute laryngotracheitis begins suddenly, manifested by shortness of breath, severe cough, hoarseness, or complete loss of voice.
Causes of acute laryngotracheitis in children
Since the treatment of acute laryngotracheitis in children should be carried out comprehensively, it is very important to identify the true cause of the disease in time.
- Flu Type A
- Parainfluenza of the first group
Since the body of a small child does not cope well with thermoregulation, diseases due to hypothermia (colds) are a common and very common phenomenon. It can manifest itself with a slight runny nose, which passes rather quickly, but it can also wake a dormant infection, especially if the child has recently been ill. Immunity is weakened by the fight against a serious enemy and can not repel another infection. At this moment, it is very important to protect the baby from the action of cold and drafts.
Any of the transferred diseases greatly weakens the body of a small child, making it very sensitive to various other infections.
Slight hypothermia gives an impetus to the development of inflammation, first in the throat, and then goes down to the trachea. Along the way, tender and sensitive vocal cords are affected. Acute laryngotracheitis occurs.
Symptoms of acute laryngotracheitis
This disease is a frequent companion of catarrhal viral diseases or their direct consequence. If you do not take measures in time and start treating the baby, then a commonplace cold can turn into a serious disease that can have dangerous complications.
Acute viral infections, penetrating the child’s body, cause tracheal vessel spasms. Because of this, blood circulation is disturbed, the mucous membranes swell, a secret begins to be actively developed.
Gradually, the secret becomes thick and viscous, with purulent contents, the trachea “clogs” with it and the child becomes hard to breathe. Due to the fact that the air literally breaks through the reduced lumen of the trachea, the child’s breathing becomes heavy, hoarse and difficult. The next stage is a sharp cough, which is characterized as barking. The baby may be disturbed by sleep due to difficulty in breathing, many people find it difficult to eat food, especially hard, to chew it.
When the vocal cords are damaged, a hoarse voice appears, its timbre changes, the child cannot speak loudly, laugh - this makes him literally go into a cough.
It is very important to begin treatment of acute laryngotracheitis in children as early as possible - a running disease can turn into prolonged bronchitis or even be complicated by pneumonia. It will be much more difficult to cure these diseases, and the treatment process will take a lot of time.
Degrees of Acute Laryngotracheitis
During this disease, it is customary to distinguish three stages:
- The first degree of the disease. At this time, the child is still quite awake, can play, eats and sleeps normally. Of the external manifestations, one can note only labored, rather heavy breathing, in some cases with wheezing, some hoarseness of the voice and obvious signs of a cold. Coughing occurs paroxysmally, can last from several minutes to several hours. The child may be capricious, but such a cough does not cause a particular, very pronounced discomfort in the baby. This is a fairly mild condition that can be quickly and effectively cured with a quick visit to a doctor and the correct diagnosis.
- The second degree of the disease. At this time, acute laryngotracheitis is in the stage of incomplete compensation. This means the fact that the body is fighting infection, resisting all the forces of its imperfect immunity. At this time, the cough becomes severe, the child cannot clear his throat, painfully trying to catch his breath, his skin may turn blue from a lack of oxygen. The breathing is very difficult, it can be heard even at a distance from the baby, it whistles out of a constantly open mouth. Because of this, a plaque forms on the tongue, the lips dry and crack.
- The third degree of the disease is called decompensated stenosis. This name means that the trachea of the child is completely clogged with thick mucus, which greatly interferes with breathing, poorly separates and provokes bouts of painful lingering cough. The child is worried, becomes lethargic, is not interested in anything, he has a disturbed sleep, completely lacks appetite. This is a very serious and difficult condition, which, most likely, requires urgent hospitalization of the child.
External methods for the acute form of laryngotracheitis
Treatment of acute laryngotracheitis in children
The treatment of acute laryngotracheitis in children is carried out comprehensively and necessarily includes a visit to a pediatrician or a specialist. You can not take on the treatment of the baby without an accurate diagnosis of a doctor.
Symptoms of this disease can be very similar to others, very dangerous and difficult to treat - pertussis, diphtheria. Self-medication can be especially dangerous in the case of a very young child or in a severe stage of an advanced disease.
Comprehensive treatment includes:
- The use of inhalation. Wet heat expands the bronchi, dilutes sputum and helps free the trachea from its contents. It becomes easier for the child to breathe, he can clear his throat and free himself from sputum. It is best to do inhalation with a special ultrasound device, especially for very young children. You can get by with a regular inhaler, you just need to carefully monitor that the child does not turn over the vessel or does not burn himself with steam. Inhalation with soda solution helps best, but you can use sea salt, as well as mix these two substances to enhance the effect. Inhalations are repeated several times a day, most often during a coughing fit. At a high temperature in a child, this procedure cannot be carried out.
- Foot baths.You need to soar your feet at a tolerable temperature, making sure that the room is not cold. Hot baths dilate blood vessels and contribute to better cleansing of the sputum from the trachea. The baby feels much better after such a procedure. At high body temperature, soaring feet is prohibited.
- A steam bath is a method that is still being treated for coughing with whooping cough. The bathroom is completely filled with steam from boiling water, and then the sick child is brought there. Inhalation of hot and very moist air “opens” the bronchi and trachea, causes vasodilation and helps to cleanse sputum. The cough subsides pretty quickly.
Treatment of laryngotracheitis in children
Treatment of laryngotracheitis in children is usually carried out on an outpatient basis, in the case of the development of false croup, the patient is hospitalized in a hospital.
Antihistamines, antitussive, mucolytic drugs are prescribed. With an increase in body temperature, antipyretic drugs are prescribed. Alkaline and / or oil inhalations, nebulizer therapy, electrophoresis on the larynx and trachea are indicated.
Drug therapy of laryngotracheitis of bacterial origin consists in the use of anti-infective drugs, the selection of which is carried out depending on the type of pathogen and taking into account its sensitivity.
Treatment of the chronic form of laryngotracheitis in children is supplemented by the appointment of vitamin complexes, immunomodulatory therapy, physiotherapy (ultra-high-frequency therapy, inductometry), as well as massage.
Surgical intervention may be indicated for complications such as a pharyngeal abscess or laryngeal cyst.
The main treatment for laryngotracheitis in children can be supplemented with herbal medicine (eucalyptus, sage, and chamomile drugs in the form of rinses or inhalations). Given the high allergenicity of herbal medicines, they should be used only by agreement with the attending physician.
In most cases, laryngotracheitis develops against the background of acute respiratory diseases: adenovirus infection, parainfluenza, influenza, measles, rubella, chickenpox, scarlet fever.
Children with an acute form of the disease or an exacerbation of a chronic one are shown a plentiful drinking regimen (warm tea, compote, jelly), as well as a sparing diet balanced in composition, with the exception of products that irritate the mucous membrane (acidic, spicy, hot, cold dishes). The air in the room in which the patient is located should be fresh and sufficiently humidified.
Possible consequences and complications of laryngotracheitis in children
Complications of laryngotracheitis in children include the spread of the pathological process to other parts of the respiratory tract with the development of tracheobronchitis and pneumonia, bronchiolitis, neoplasms of the larynx or trachea.
Against the background of false croup, a patient with laryngotracheitis may develop asphyxiation.
The mechanism of development of laryngotracheitis
The mechanism of the onset and course of the disease is associated with a viral onset. As a result of a damaging effect on the mucosa, its inflammation and swelling occur, and thick viscous sputum begins to accumulate in the lumen of the tracheobronchial tract. Irritation and impregnation of tissues with mucopurulent exudate leads to a narrowing of the larynx and the appearance of a cough.
Changing the lumen of the airways and the width of the glottis provokes muscle spasm and an increase in stenosis (difficulty breathing), which causes hypoxia. Compensation for the lack of air is achieved by deep breathing through the mouth, which further drains and damages the mucous membrane.
Forms and Symptoms
Most often, the disease develops in children aged one to 7 years. This is explained by the anatomical structure of the larynx (narrow glottis) and the imperfection of the immune system.
Laryngotracheitis in babies proceeds with a number of features and is very pronounced. The severity of symptoms depends on the form of the disease and the size of the affected area.
Laryngotracheitis in a child - what is it?
Laryngotracheitis - ENT infection of the larynx (trachea) that occurs directly in children is the result of advanced sinusitis, tonsillitis, and flu. Often this is a complication of pneumonia, bronchitis.
It is important for parents to be able to distinguish the symptoms of a common cold from false croup, when it is no longer possible to postpone a call to a pediatrician, ENT, and undergo complex (often inpatient) treatment.
Causes of the disease in children
Viruses, entering the body, begin to attach to the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx, dramatically suppressing local immunity. Protective phagocytes become unstable before the onset of infection.
Pathogenic microflora develops rapidly, producing purulent exudate.
Children have obvious symptoms of inflammation:
- green snot
- severe cough with sputum discharge.
The main reason is pathogenic viruses (bacteria) that multiply rapidly in the bronchi (getting into a warm environment), when the child's mucous membrane begins to swell, and the trachea becomes hyperemic.
In babies, the immune system is weak, it is only at the stage of formation. Also, a fairly short path from the upper sections to the lower respiratory organs (unlike adults).
The provoking factors for the development of inflammation are viruses and bacteria (enterovirus, rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus), which enter the body through contact-household, airborne droplets.
The reason for which:
- colds, hypothermia,
- low immunity.
More often, laryngotracheitis is a consequence of ARVI, when vasospasms are observed, swelling of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tube
REFERENCE! Sometimes allergies contribute to the development of pathology, when even with normal immunity in children, viruses begin to activate.
If the child stays in an unfavorable ecological zone or in the cold for a long time, then tonsillitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, pharyngitis can provoke pathology. If the infection enters the trachea, then a constant runny nose begins to bother the children.
What is laryngotracheitis
The name of this disease, like the name of the majority, other medical terms, came to us from the Latin language.
It consists of the words larynx-larynx, trachea-trachea, and the suffix itis-inflammation.
Most often, infection occurs in the winter, when the body is exposed to adverse environmental factors:
- low temperatures against high humidity,
- complicated epidemic situation.
Pathogens are so small that they can travel on the smallest water particles and spread through the air currents over a large distance from the source of infection. The cause may be the presence of a latent infection process, for example, untreated otitis media or pharyngitis.
The disease can begin with a common cold and, without timely treatment, spread to the lower respiratory organs. In the case of further spread of pathogens, the bronchi and lungs are affected, which leads to inflammatory diseases of these organs. Especially dangerous is such a complication of laryngotracheitis as false croup and the subsequent asphyxiation (asphyxiation), so it is important for parents to know the signs of the disease and the methods of first aid.
The appearance of signs of primary laryngotracheitis can no longer be ignored.
It is necessary to show the child to the otolaryngologist for examination of the mucous membrane of the larynx (trachea).
With this pathology, swelling is clearly observed, copious exudate secretion, accumulation of purulent thick mucus in the throat, barking cough, stenotic breathing.
The main diagnostic measures:
- visual inspection of the child,
- listening to the lungs.
In general, the diagnosis for doctors is not particularly difficult.
But the children are assigned to surrender:
- blood tests, urine tests,
- a throat swab (biopsy) on the microflora for prescribing in subsequent antibacterial therapy.
First aid child
Parents should be able to provide first aid before the doctors arrive, because the child begins to cry constantly and even scream, provoking an increase in irritation of the larynx mucosa (trachea).
Basic rules for first aid:
- give the child more often a warm drink (tea, milk),
- do not let children strain their vocal cords, so you need to try to calm,
- provide fresh air
- moisten the room, as children have increased sweating,
- soak your legs, hands to relieve inflammation (if there is no high temperature),
- humidify indoor air.
REFERENCE! Many drugs for infants up to 1 year old are contraindicated, while inflammation progresses rapidly. With this disease, you can not hesitate. The help of professionals is required.
Most often, barking coughing attacks occur at night, when children noticeably strain their pectoral muscles. Signs cannot be ignored. If there is no way to urgently call an ambulance, then during attacks with activities up to 0.5 hours, you need to moisten the room, give the child a plentiful drink.
Are antibiotics needed?
The appointment of medications directly depends on the etiology, the severity of the ongoing inflammatory process.
Many doctors are inclined to the fact that there is no need to treat laryngotracheitis in children with antibiotics.
It is quite possible to eliminate unpleasant symptoms with standard therapeutic measures: inhalation, heavy drinking, bed rest.
At the initial stage and if there are no visible complications, antitussive drugs for children are enough.
Antibiotics of the penicillin group are prescribed for severe illness, the addition of bacterial flora:
- Azithromycin - semisynthetic preparation with bactericidal action. Suppresses protein biosynthesis and the vital activity of anaerobic microflora, chlamydia, streptococci. It is used for children in capsules, tablets with a body weight of more than 45 kg, for babies - in the form of a suspension. Price - 44-90 rub.
- Flemoxin - antimicrobial penicillin with a bactericidal effect. Suppresses transpeptidase, disrupts the process of producing murein in the composition of bacterial walls, stopping their growth and division. It is prescribed for babies up to 1 year old in syrup with purulent tonsillitis, laryngotracheitis. Price - 230 rub
- Amoxiclav composed of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. It has a detrimental effect on gram-negative (positive) aerobes, anaerobes. Children under 12 years of age are prescribed in the form of a suspension. Dose - 62-125 mg, taking into account body weight. Price - 290-420 rub.
- Cefixime - cephalosporin 3 generations to suppress the synthesis of the cell walls of the pathogen (bacteria, salmonella, streptococcus). It is indicated for tonsillitis, bronchitis, otitis media, tracheitis with an infectious - inflammatory course. Apply to children from 6 months of age - 8 mg / kg once a day. The course of treatment is 10-12 days. Price - 755-800 rub.
- Zinacef - refers to the 2nd generation of cephalosporins, binds target proteins, inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial walls. It is prescribed taking into account the weight - 0,003 g per 1 kg up to 3 times a day, for newborns - 0.03 per 1 kg for 2 injections. Price - 145-250 rub.
- Suprax - semisynthetic cephalosporin 3 generations. It binds to proteins with albumin, getting into blood plasma. It is indicated in the treatment of respiratory tract infections (bronchitis, pneumonia) in the form of a suspension for babies with a dose of 200 mg per 1 session. Price - 676 rub
- Ceftriaxone - a bactericidal medication with greater resistance to gram +, - microbes. Is worth 17 rub
- Aksetin - antibacterial cephalosporin 2 generations with the appointment of pharyngitis, bronchitis, lung abscess, meningitis tracheitis. Dose for children up to 40 kg - 30-100 mg / kg up to 4 injections per day. Price - 460 rub
- Clarithromycin - Macrolide, active against anaerobic (aerobic) microorganisms. Children apply from 6 months. Cost - 120 rub (250 mg).
- Sumamed - bacteriostatic antibiotic to slow the growth and reproduction of bacteria. Prescribing to children - from 6 months - in syrup - 250 mg per day, with a body weight of 18-30 kg. Price - 480-550 rub.
- Bioparox - An antibacterial, anti-inflammatory polypeptide local drug. It is indicated for inhalation with the penetration of the composition into the bronchioles and sinuses, with a full coating of the mucosa of the respiratory tract when spraying. Apply to children from 2.5 years. Single dose - 1 injection in each nasal passage. Price - 465 rub
Basically, laryngotracheitis in a child occurs against a background of a viral infection, therefore, antiviral agents are prescribed:
- Ergoferon - An immunostimulating drug to block the propagation of virus particles. Price - 1000 rub (50pcs),
- Aflubin - has a mild detoxification antipyretic effect. Relieves inflammation, irritating runny nose and cough with tracheitis. Price - 209-287 rub,
- Laferobion (suppositories, solution, lyophilisate) - antiviral non-toxic medication. We apply to infants with acute respiratory viral infections, pneumonia. Price - 871 rub,
- Anaferon - homeopathic medicine with antiviral effects on the body. Increases the level of antibodies, activates the immune system. It is indicated in the treatment of acute respiratory viral infections, influenza, cytomegalovirus infection in children. Price - 200 rub (20 pcs)
- Grippferon - spray, drops with antiviral, anti-inflammatory effect. Price - 240-270 rub ,
- Arbidol, active against viruses A and B, produces interferon production in the body. It is shown to children from 3 years. Is worth 260 rub (20pcs)
- IRS-19 (spray), envelops the nasal mucosa, activates the development of local immunity. Price - 370-450 rub.
In case of false croup, hormonal agents are indicated for use:
- Pulmicort (in nebulizers).
Doses are selected taking into account the weight of the child.
To minimize dry coughing attacks will help:
To have a better sputum in the child:
Relieve swelling, irritation of the throat mucosa:
Locally shown to the child with laryngotracheitis:
- lozenges from perspiration, soreness in the larynx,
- medicines to ease breathing, thinning sputum,
- corticosteroids to relieve inflammation,
- antihistamines for allergic reactions.
In order to prevent the development of laryngotracheitis in children, it is recommended:
- timely and adequate treatment of infectious diseases, especially acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI),
- avoidance of hypothermia,
- adequate physical activity,
- regular walks in the fresh air,
- rational daily routine
- balanced diet,
- quitting smoking in the presence of a child.
Medicines for laryngotracheitis in a child
To eliminate the symptoms of laryngotracheitis, the child is prescribed the following medications:
- antipyretic and anti-inflammatory - ibuprofen, paracetamol,
- antihistamines - Desloratadine, Erespal, Tavegil, Erispius syrup, Fenistil,
- corticosteroids - Dexamethasone, prednisone.
Cofex and Codterpin will help the child get rid of a painful night cough. Of herbal remedies, Glaucin hydrochloride gives a good effect. Mukaltin, Alteyka syrup, Prospan, Gederin, Tussin will cope with a dry cough.
With proper treatment, an unproductive cough quickly turns to wet, breathing normalizes and health improves. The child becomes more active, appetite appears. To liquefy and speedy removal of sputum, Lazolvan, ACC, Ambrobene, Ambroxol are prescribed.
Antibacterial drugs for children with laryngotracheitis are most often not needed, since the disease in 90% of cases is viral in nature. But if the need for antimicrobial agents nevertheless arose, they are used only as prescribed by the doctor.
Symptoms of laryngotracheitis in children
Symptoms of laryngotracheitis in children depend on the form of the course of the disease.
But the onset of the development of the disease is usually characterized by common signs:
- increase in temperature indicators. The value depends on the cause of the disease,
- respiratory failure
- increased heart rate due to lack of oxygen,
- cough of different characteristics,
- nasal congestion, runny nose,
- persistent soreness and sore throat,
- hoarseness and voice change,
- due to sore throat, the child refuses to eat.
Symptoms are generally worse at night, which causes sleep disturbance. It is important that when blue lips and nasolabial triangle urgently need to call an ambulance.
Allergic form of the disease
Allergic laryngotracheitis is expressed by the presence of the following symptoms:
- dry barking cough, aggravated by contact with an allergen,
- respiratory failure
- soreness and sore throat,
- hoarse voice.
With a large amount of allergen, a temperature increase of up to 38 degrees is possible.
Stenosing laryngotracheitis is the most dangerous form.
The disease is accompanied by a narrowing of the larynx or trachea, which can lead to the development of suffocation. The disease manifests itself:
- hoarseness and hoarseness of voice,
- sonorous cough
- increased heart rate,
- frequent shortness of breath, even with small physical exertion,
- noisy breaths.
With a strong narrowing of the airways, blue lips, weak breathing and pallor of the skin are noted.
Inhalation with medicines
Inhalations are an integral part of the treatment process for laryngotracheitis in a child.
Conducted using medications:
- Antiseptic solutions
- Calendula tincture, with propolis (for alcohol),
- Interferon (in ampoules).
Inhalations are carried out up to 3 times a day with a duration of 15 minutes and 1 procedure is mandatory for the night.
REFERENCE! Inhalations are prohibited for infants under 1 year old, with high t - +38 g, bronchial asthma at the peak of exacerbation.
They proved the effectiveness of inhalation with a nebulizer for laryngotracheitis in a child.
The frequency of inhalation is 2-3 times a day. If the cough is frequent paroxysmal, then to soften the throat, it is allowed to inhale the vapors for children up to 4 times a day.
Drug treatment of the disease
Treatment of the disease with medication
In case of acute laryngotracheitis, it is very dangerous to give a child medications on his own, especially antibiotics. You can easily confuse the dose, allergies can occur on medications, and the effectiveness of antibiotics for a viral disease is practically zero.
Only a pediatrician can prescribe these drugs, and only if he believes that a bacterial infection has also joined the viral infection. Otherwise, such treatment can only harm the child. As a cough suppressant, various drugs are prescribed that can effectively thin the sputum and cause its separation.
Antispasmodic and expectorant drugs will help to quickly remove sputum from the body, which prevents normal breathing.
They give medicine strictly according to the doctor’s prescription and in the dosage prescribed by him. The child must be sure to explain that sputum and mucus that has begun to spit up must be spat out. To do this, the baby is explained how this is done, and taught to use disposable paper scarves or napkins, so as not to spread the infection.
More information on laryngotracheitis can be found in the video.
Emergency care for a child with acute laryngotracheitis
Laryngotracheitis (symptoms and treatment in children are interrelated, since the severity of the pathology and the corresponding therapy are determined by the severity of the symptoms) can lead to suffocation, therefore, it is important for parents to know the sequence of actions in this situation (before the ambulance arrives):
- Parents themselves calm down, as children, seeing the fright of adults, begin to panic, which causes rapid breathing and increased coughing attacks. This provokes an increase in edema and a deterioration in the overall well-being of the child.
- To seat the child, preferably to the mother on her knees, this is additionally reassuring.
- You can open all the ventilation windows in the house, if the weather allows. If necessary, moisten the air with a spray gun.
- Remove upper tight clothing from the child.
- Give the patient an antihistamine. The dosage and type of medication should be appropriate for age. This will reduce swelling in the airways.
- Give the patient drink mineral water without gas or water with soda (200 ml 1-3 g of soda).
- Instill vasoconstrictor drugs in the nose, they will not only facilitate nasal breathing, but also reduce swelling in the larynx (since the drug enters the respiratory tract in a small amount).
- If there is a nebulizer, allow the child to breathe with saline. In his absence, the patient can be given a breath of hot water vapor.
- In the absence of temperature, you can rub your feet or make a hot foot bath. This will provide a rush of blood to the limbs and reduce swelling in the throat.
Since seizures occur mainly at night, you should not slow down the child much, it can also frighten him.
You can turn on the nightlight and perform all the procedures in the room on the bed. The child should be in a sitting position, this facilitates breathing and procedures. It is important that when you stop breathing, you need to open the mouth of the child and, using a spoon, put pressure on the root of the tongue, causing vomiting. This action will cause reflex expansion of the airways.
Methods of treating laryngotracheitis in children
When diagnosing laryngotracheitis, specialists use the following methods of treatment:
- try to provide voice and psychological peace to the child in order to reduce the burden on the respiratory tract,
- the air in the room should be within 18-20 degrees and sufficiently moistened,
- compliance with diet therapy. The child should receive enough nutrients. Food should not irritate the larynx and trachea,
- it is required to ensure sufficient drinking for the patient, to moisten the larynx and trachea, thin the sputum and accelerate the removal of toxins from the body,
- taking appropriate medications (antiviral, antihistamines or antibacterial drugs),
Additional treatment with folk remedies is carried out with the permission of the pediatrician. Full compliance with the recommendations of the doctor will help to avoid the development of complications.
In severe forms of the disease, treatment is stationary. According to Dr. Komarovsky, antibiotics should be excluded. It is possible to improve breathing and destroy the pathogen by taking antitussive and immunomodulating drugs. Thereby less harm will be done to the child’s body.
Drug therapy by age and form of the disease
Laryngotracheitis requires medical treatment, since in children the disease is dangerous by the development of severe complications. When choosing a drug, a pediatrician or otolaryngologist takes into account the child’s age and the severity of the disease, according to the symptoms and diagnostic results.
|Child age||Forms of Laryngotracheitis|
|3-7 years old|
|After 7 years|
To eliminate puffiness in the respiratory tract, with viral and bacterial laryngotracheitis, it is additionally recommended to take antihistamines.
Folk remedies for laryngotracheitis
Laryngotracheitis (symptoms and treatment in children depend on the stage of development of the disease) can be eliminated using folk remedies. With a mild form of pathology or as a prophylaxis, folk formulations can be used as an independent therapy. For moderate and advanced types of disease, complex treatment is required. A doctor's consultation is required.
Rules for the preparation and use of folk remedies:
|Dosage form of folk formulations||Components Used||Application features|
|Herbal preparations for oral administration||A mixture of coltsfoot and oregano (15 g), chamomile flowers (15 g) and 250 ml of boiling water.||Boil herbs in boiling water. Insist 30 minutes strain. Drink during the day for 3-4 doses.|
|Combine in equal proportions licorice root, fennel and coltsfoot. It will take 20 g of collection and 300 ml of boiling water.||Strain the collection and insist 30 minutes. Divide the infusion into 4 doses and drink during the day.|
|Juices and syrups for oral use||Freshly squeezed carrot juice (200 ml), honey (30 ml).||The juice needs to be slightly warmed up and honey dissolved in it. Take 10-20 ml 5 times a day.|
|Onion, granulated sugar (50 g), warm water (200 ml).||Put sugar and chopped onions in water. Stew on the fire for 10-15 minutes. Consume 10-15 ml 4 times a day.|
|Figs (4-5 fruits), milk (200 ml)||Pour hot milk into a thermos and place fig fruits in it. Insist 8 hours. Take 50 ml 3 times a day.|
|Infusions and decoctions for rinsing||Sea salt (3 g) and warm water (200 ml).||Combine the components and mix thoroughly. The salt should dissolve completely. Rinse not 3 times a day.|
|Soda (3 g), warm water (150 ml) and juice from 1 potato.||Combine the components, mix well. Gargle 3-4 times a day. Use fresh solution every time.|
|Infusions and solutions for inhalation||Baking soda (3 g) and drinking water (200 ml).||Connect the components. The solution is used for inhalation using a nebulizer.|
|Potato and eucalyptus oil (2-3 drops)||Boil the potatoes (do not remove from the broth), add eucalyptus oil. Breathe over the steam (you can not hide behind a towel). Carry out procedures 2-3 times a day. Be sure to go to bed.|
In the treatment of folk formulations, it is important to monitor the reaction of the child, since the funds can cause an allergic reaction and worsen the patient's condition. It is important that up to a year all national compositions are used extremely carefully and only with the permission of the pediatrician.
The most effective for laryngotracheitis is the use of inhalation with the use of drugs. Drugs can quickly facilitate breathing during exacerbation of the disease.
For the nebulizer, the following medications are recommended:
- Berodual. The drug is available not only as a solution for inhalation, but also as an inhaler. What is convenient to use when away from home. There are no age restrictions,
- Saline solution. It is used only for inhalation using a nebulizer. There are no age restrictions either,
- Pulmicort. Powder and solution are used for inhalation using a nebulizer. In childhood, it is used under the supervision of a pediatrician, since the drug can cause stunting.
The dosage of the drug and the time of inhalation are selected individually according to the age and form of the severity of the course of the disease. Self-correction of the course of therapy is prohibited.
For the treatment period, it is important to adhere to diet therapy:
- food should be warm. Hot or cold food will be irritating to the respiratory tract,
- fatty, spicy and salty foods are excluded, as they exert an excessive load on the digestive tract and contribute to the retention of moisture in the body,
- The daily diet should consist of small portions. The multiplicity of food intake 5-6 times a day,
- the diet should be varied. Products should contain a sufficient amount of nutrients (broths, liquid cereals with pieces of soft fruits, mashed soups),
- exclude allergic products from the menu.
At least 2 liters of fluid should be consumed per day. Preferably juices, compotes and jelly.
Alternative methods of treating laryngotracheitis in a child
Sometimes unconventional methods of treatment help no worse than those recommended by official medicine.
An effective way to cough with laryngotracheitis is the juice of radish with honey. Wash the juicy vegetable and cut off the top, then take out part of the pulp. Inside, pour liquid honey and clean in a warm place. After a day, the medicine is ready. Sweet juice is given to the child three times a day for 1 tsp.
From sore throats, a warm onion broth helps well. The bulb is peeled, finely chopped and mixed with 2 tbsp. l sugar and 200 ml of water. The mixture is placed on a slow fire and kept until thickened. Give the baby 4 times a day after meals.
Rinsing with laryngotracheitis in a child
Another great way to cope with laryngotracheitis in a child at home. Frequent irrigation of the throat (6-8 times a day) relieves inflammation, reduces swelling and irritation.
The following products are recommended for rinsing:
- a solution of sea or ordinary table salt (7 grams per ½ liter),
- fresh beet juice diluted with water,
- infusions of herbs (chamomile, linden, eucalyptus, birch leaf),
- warm broth of potatoes.
At night, it’s good to give your child a glass of hot milk with honey and butter or boiled dates.
Complications of laryngotracheitis in children
A child under 6 years of age may develop a narrowing of the lumen of the larynx - false croup (laryngotracheitis in infants). With the spread of viruses to the lower sections of the respiratory system, laryngotracheobronchitis and pneumonia develop, which is accompanied by bronchiolitis. Complications of laryngotracheitis in children can be more serious: with chronic hypertrophic laryngitis, there is a risk of laryngeal cancer or purulent inflammation. A deadly complication in which you need to call an ambulance is considered to be stenotic tracheolaryngitis in children.
Inhalation with laryngotracheitis in a child
A simple and effective way to treat laryngotracheitis in young children. The procedure does not require any skills from the child and efforts from the parents. It is enough to purchase a nebulizer and pour a medicinal solution into it. Mineral water like Essentuki, a decoction of herbs or baby cough syrups (Prospan) are perfect for this.But Berodual with laryngotracheitis should not be used. This medication has completely different indications.
If the child is more than 5 years old, for inhalation you can use a bowl with hot infusion of medicinal plants or a solution of pharmaceutical preparations. The procedure should be performed only in the presence of adult family members.
A good effect on laryngotracheitis is given by hot foot baths or mustard plasters on calves. Warming compresses on the throat and irradiation with a UV lamp are still relevant.
How long does laryngotracheitis in children last? With proper and timely treatment, the ailment disappears in 10-14 days. After 3-4 days of active therapy, the temperature decreases and the child feels better, then a dry cough turns into a productive one and the voice is restored.
If the symptoms persist for more than 2 weeks, everything speaks of the development of a chronic form of the disease.
Possible complications and consequences
Laryngotracheitis in children must be treated. Otherwise, the inflammation will go down and capture the bronchi and lungs. The acute stage can lead to a sharp allergic and anaphylactic reaction, the development of bronchial asthma.
Long-lasting laryngotracheitis leaves scars and seals on the child’s vocal cords, causing further hoarseness of the voice, and when exposed to adverse factors (excitement, hypothermia) and its complete loss.
Useful video about acute laryngotracheitis in a child
List of sources:
- Acute laryngotracheitis in children: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment. Textbook for students / M.V. Subbotina // Irkutsk. 2008.
- Diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment of childhood infections. 2nd edition / Timchenko V.N., Levanovich V.V., Mikhailov I.B. 2007.
- Krup / L. S. Namazova, N. I. Voznesenskaya, A. L. Vertkin // The attending physician. No. 3. 2003.
Treatment with folk remedies
Treatment of laryngotracheitis in children at home will help relieve unpleasant symptoms.
You can prepare alkaline inhalations yourself:
- plain soda (1 tsp per 1 glass of water),
- Borjomi mineral water, mixed with saline,
- eucalyptus oil.
If there is no temperature - soar legs or put mustard plasters for 10-15 minutes to warm up.
The laryngotracheitis in a child is successfully treated with herbal preparations (calendula, sage, chamomile, linden, St. John's wort).
- Figs with milk. Fruits (4-5 pcs.), Mash, insist on milk for 8 hours. Take 1/3 cup 3 times a day.
- Onion peel a small head, chop, make the child inhale the vapors for 10 minutes, so up to 3 times.
- Grate the onion, add sugar (2 tsp), simmer over a fire until a thick slurry is obtained, cool. Give children a little every 1-2 hours.
- Carrot Juice + Honey (50 g) mix, give to take in sips up to 6 times.
- Chamomile + plantain + calendula + sage + St. John's wort + mint + immortelle + wild rosemary + pine + fir + fir buds. 1 tbsp. l collection pour boiling water (1 cup), insist 2 hours. Take inhalation every 3 hours.
It is good to gargle a child's throat with a solution of ordinary sea salt and soda with the addition of a few drops of iodine.
Breast fees are indicated in the treatment of laryngotracheitis in a child with the preparation according to the following recipes:
- coltsfoot + oregano 10 g + chamomile (20 g). Take 1 tbsp. l collection, pour boiling water (1 cup), drink like tea 1/4 cup 2 times a day,
- calendula + St. John's wort + plantain + linden blossom. 1 tbsp. l boil 0.5 liters of boiling water, simmer on fire for 20-25 minutes, insist 6 hours, give children drink 1/4 cup 3-4 times a day.
Allergic laryngotracheitis in a child
In this case, allergens trigger the inflammatory process, and then the opportunistic flora present in any organism is connected. Symptoms of an allergic form are identical to symptoms in the acute course of this disease. The difference is not in the symptoms, in the difficulty of identifying the cause of the disease, which in turn affects the effectiveness of treatment.
If laryngotracheitis proceeds without an increase in temperature, then by a doctor (in combination with drug therapy) physiotherapeutic procedures are prescribed:
- UHF therapy. The therapeutic effect on the body is a high-frequency electromagnetic field,
- magnetotherapy. The procedure is performed on the larynx,
- electrophoresis. The introduction of drugs through the skin under the influence of a weak electric current,
- short ultraviolet radiation of the laryngeal mucosa.
At home, you can produce light massages, which consist of weak pats on the back (the child is in a prone position). This allows you to more efficiently discharge sputum from the lungs. It is additionally recommended once a year to visit medical sanatoriums.
The daily regimen for children with laryngotracheitis
Laryngotracheitis (it is important to discuss the symptoms and treatment in children with a pediatrician, self-diagnosis and self-medication can be fatal to a child) more succesful to therapy, subject to the recommendations of the doctor at home:
- daily ventilation and humidification of indoor air,
- observe the temperature regime, not only indoors, but also dress the child according to the weather,
- take daily walks, preferably in forest park areas (in the absence of temperature),
- exclude the child in smoking areas,
- the patient should get enough sleep. Therefore, it is important to give the child a full rest, not only at night, but also in the daytime.
In the presence of any catarrhal diseases (even with a common cold), timely treatment is required, otherwise the disease can turn into a complication in the form of laryngotracheitis.
Possible complications and prognosis
Laryngotracheitis is dangerous for the development of suffocation. Therefore, it is important to begin treatment of the disease in a timely manner. Subject to the prescription of the doctor and with the passage of a full therapeutic course, the disease can be eliminated. In the absence of appropriate measures, the pathology becomes chronic and can cause death.
Possible complications of laryngotracheitis are:
- violation of tone and voice quality (constant hoarseness or hoarseness),
- due to lack of oxygen, the child may lag behind in mental and physical development,
- penetration of infection into the bronchi.
In the chronic form of laryngotracheitis, regular injury to the mucous membranes in the airways occurs, which can cause the development of benign or malignant tumors in the airways. Laryngotracheitis develops mainly as a complication after untreated infectious diseases or as a result of an allergic reaction.
The disease is more often diagnosed in children from birth to 6 years. At this age, it is required to approach the choice of medicines taking into account age-related indicators. When prescribing a conditionally approved drug, it is required to strictly observe the dose and course of treatment. It is important that in the absence of therapy, the disease can be fatal, so parents should know the dangerous symptoms of the disease.
Syrups and tinctures
Many pediatricians believe that it is undesirable to give syrups to children under 6 years of age, since a viscous consistency will provoke the accumulation of sputum in the bronchi.
A young child, due to the physical characteristics of the body, cannot cough up on their own until this age, which will only lead to a deterioration in health.
For the purpose of expectoration, it is better to prepare potions:
- Lemon and honey (for cough). Cut the lemon in the center (removing the seeds), boil it in water until softened, crush it in mashed potatoes. Add honey (1x1), glycerin (1 tablespoon), mix. To give the child 1 tsp. up to 5-6 times a day.
- Ginger (root) grind into powder, combine with honey (1x3)stand on fire for 5-7 minutes. Add to hot tea and drink before bedtime.
- Aloe, cut a fresh leaf. Keep in the refrigerator for up to 10 days (in order to accumulate bioactive substances in the pulp to suppress pathogenic microflora). To give the child 1 tsp. 2 times a day or squeeze juice from an aloe leaf, add a little honey.
Inhalation with herbs
Inhalation with laryngotracheitis in a child is carried out, if there is no exacerbation, high temperature. Herbs are suitable for steam treatments. Fragrant fumes contribute to the rapid removal of inflammation, easier breathing, moisturizing (softening) the throat cavity.
- You can cook the hood from sage, chamomile, calendula: 1 tbsp. l dry grass raw materials pour boiling water (1 cup), fill the inhaler (nebulizer). Ask the child to inhale the vapors for up to 15 minutes twice a day (covering his head with a towel and always before bedtime), pour additional solution into the baths and warm his legs for the night.
- Fragrant oils (fir, juniper, tea tree, mint, eucalyptus). Why add a few drops to hot water and also carry out inhalation for up to 15 minutes.
- Sea salt. 1 tbsp dissolve in boiling water (1 cup), add essential oil (3-4 drops). Ask the child to breathe in pairs 10 minutes 2 times a day.
Possible effects in children
Laryngotracheitis - A disease in which complications cannot be avoided, if you neglect the correct treatment at the initial stage or ignore the unpleasant manifestations of the inflammatory process in the bronchi (trachea) in children.
If the infection begins to spread to the larynx (trachea), it will lead to more severe pathologies:
- false croup, fraught with asphyxia (suffocation) in the case of a sharp narrowing of the lumen of the larynx.
If viruses lead to damage to the lower respiratory tract, then in children under 6 years of age, pneumonia, laryngotracheobronchitis can begin. Accompanied with bronchiolitis, the consequence will be hypertrophic laryngitis (chronic) or stenotic tracheolaryngitis up to the development of laryngeal cancer.
Danger for the child is a false croup and purulent course in the bronchi.
Often repeated seizures and shortness of breath can be fatal in:
- ear otitis media
- lacunar angina
- obstructive bronchitis.
If treatment is started in time, then the inflammatory process should decline after 5-7 days.
If the parents noticed that the disease is progressing, the child has:
- wheezing, wheezing,
- whistles when inhaling
- dropping of the dimples on the neck, then self-medication at home is impossible. Urgently need to contact a doctor.
If you do not start the inflammatory process and unquestioningly follow all the prescriptions (instructions) of the doctor, then the disease should recede after 3-7 days. If laryngotracheitis is progressing, then the child is subject to urgent hospitalization, possibly with medical emergency therapy in the conditions of resuscitation.
In advanced cases, doctors do not guarantee a quick cure, especially if a purulent infection has led to extensive damage to the larynx and trachea.
The task of the parents is not to ignore the appearance of drooping on the inspiration of the dimples in the neck, noises and whistling on inspiration, the baby's skin turns blue, and the temperature rises steadily over 38 degrees.
Laryngotracheitis is a consequence of an untreated cold, therefore an exclusively comprehensive approach should be selected for treatment.
The children's immune system in infants is imperfect and needs constant reinforcement. It is difficult to avoid colds in babies (especially up to 3 years old), but the disease is always easier to prevent than to end up for a long and painful treatment.
It is extremely important to observe simple preventive measures:
- strengthen immunity in the offseason, support the body with vitamins, natural juices, vegetables, berries,
- provide children with food from milk porridges, compotes, chicken soups,
- conduct hardening, engage in breathing exercises,
- wear according to the weather, but avoid hypothermia,
- keep your vocal cords
- treat colds on time
- to teach children to sport from early childhood,
- periodically conduct immunomodulating therapy courses,
- regularly walk in the fresh air,
- not to allow a long stay of the child in a smoky room.
Almost every child has to get a cold and symptoms (cough, nasal congestion, sore throat) up to 3 times a year can even be considered the norm. The immune system independently fights the infection, gradually grows stronger and develops stable immunity.
Laryngotracheitis - serious damage to the respiratory tract and most importantly - to suspend the harmful effects of viruses (bacteria) in time and follow the doctor's recommendations.
Many parents respond about the effectiveness of therapy with antiviral drugs, nebulizers. The main thing is to prevent the manifestation of false croup with a suffocating cough at night.